2015 Karaman War
The 2015 Karaman War (31 January 2015 - 24 February) was a military conflict fought primarily between Questers and Prekonate in Karaman, although military units from both the National Republic of Karaman and the Vyzant Republic took part in the fighting. The war was fought over the city of Bafra and its surrounding terrain, which Prekonate claimed was harbouring terrorist training camps, and the Sajur plain area of northern Karaman, which was the location of a Questarian-Karamish counter-offensive.
After Vyzant irregular troops entered Bafra, on the 31st of January, General Alexander Stafford, against orders from Jesselton, led the Questarian forces in Karaman into battle against Prekovi General Tomáš Hradecký's Prekovi Group of Forces Karaman. Although Hradecký received almost 75,000 men in reinforcements over the three-week battle, the Prekovi forces were ultimately defeated and Prekonate withdrew from Karaman after a wide-spread ethnic Karamish uprising paralysed logistical chains.
In total, more than 55,000 soldiers were killed or wounded amongst the four nations involved, and at least 150 Morivaine troops were killed or injured. More than 50,000 civilians died or are missing, and at least 500,000 were displaced from their homes. Questers was widely criticised for being unable to enforce military discipline and for the use of chemical weapons by its soldiers. The war was Maredoratica' s first conventional conflict in the 21st century between the armies of two state-actors.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Background
- 3 Prelude
- 4 Opposing forces
- 5 Fighting
- 6 Aftermath
- 7 Humanitarian impact and war crimes
- 8 Combatants
- 9 See also
The war is known as Operation Neptune in Questers and A war name in Prekonate. International sources typically refer to the war as the 2015 Karaman War or the 2015 Karaman Incident, although the date is sometimes ommitted. It is less commonly called the Sajur Incident or Bafra Incident. Names for the war in Karaman itself differ widely depending on an individual's political views.
In June of 2013, civil war broke out in the Republic of Karaman, with the military dictator Enver Pasha fighting against a liberal insurgency led by Erberk Ozdemir and other groups. Questers, Morieux and Prekonate all launched their own interventions, and the three powers signed the Izmir Tripartite Agreement on the 1st of August, 2013, detailing the division of Karaman. The National Republic of Karaman, with Erberk Ozdemir as the President, was set up in the south, supported by Morieux and Questers. The Vyzant Republic was set up in the north, supported by Prekonate. The capital, Corum, was divided into three parts. The Maredoratic League established the Maredoratic Stabilisation Mission in Karaman, or MASTAMIK, shortly afterwards, and controlled the free port of Silvan and the Green Zone, an international-area of the city of Corum, which all signatories to the Izmir Tripartite Agreement could enter. Originally, Sondstead, Galla and Van Luxemburg contributed peacekeepers to MASTAMIK, which supported the Provisional People's Government of Karaman.
Between the periods right after the Izmir Tripartite Agreement and just before the war, Questers and Morieux, and their respective local forces, the National Republic of Karaman Army and the Karamish National Guard, fought against an Islamist insurgency, mainly organised by the Islamic Front of Karaman. In June 2013, Questarian troops launched Operation Alcove, which Prekonate claims pushed at least 30,000 terrorists across the border into the Vyzant Republic. Prekonate further accused Questers and Morieux of running terrorist training camps in the Bafra highlands, which were being used to attack the Vyzant Republic.
Coup d'etat of 15th Januarycoup d'etat, arresting the cabinet and some of the Army senior staff. Erberk Ozdemir was summarily executed. General Stafford threatened to move into the MASTAMIK-controlled Green Zone in Corum, and the zone was surrounded by Questarian troops. MASTAMIK forces in Silvan received reinforcements from Galla and Valcluse and prepared for a confrontation. On the 17th, E̊sbjus Jollande̊r, Sondsteadish commander of MASTAMIK, turned over control of his forces to General Yves Derosier of the Morivaine National Guard, avoiding a Questarian attack. From that point onwards, Morieux commanded MASTAMIK. A Prekovi condemnation followed.
Formation of a new government
Since the coup d'etat of 15th January, Karaman had been without a government, though the security forces and emergency services still functioned. On the 27th of January, Morieux formed the Committee for Public Safety, inviting members of the Provisional government and former important personalities of the National Republic into a new government; Prekonate accused the Jesselton Pact of an attempting to take over Karaman, and finally withdrew from the Izmir Tripartite Agreement. On the same day, a number of border skirmishes broke out between Vyzant and Karamish troops.
Questers had nearly 170,000 troops in theatre, with almost a thousand main battle tanks and two hundred aircraft. Questarian troops were supported by a large logistics network including pre-stored fuel and ammunition supplies. Before the opening of the war, morale in the Combined Forces was very high. Commander in chief Alexander Stafford was held in high regard by his troops, the relations between officers and senior staff were very high, and a concerted attempted to bridge relations between locals and Questarian troops, coupled with Questarian propaganda about the nature of the war, meant that Questers entered the engagement with troops willing to fight. Major-General Richard Peterson, Stafford's friend and confidante and commander of a Division, said after the war that 'our boys would have followed [General Stafford] wherever he went.' Both Prekovi and Questarian intelligence anticipated a collapse in Questarian morale, but it never came. Questers was also able to benefit from the element of surprise; Prekonate had not stockpiled as many supplies and its airforce was heavily damaged in the first day by rocket attacks.
- Division of Major-General Richard Peterson, (Brigades of Brigadier-Generals James Miller, John Pool, Jason Hart, and Stephen Manders)
- Division of Major-General William Baxter (later Alexander Stafford), (Brigades of Brigadier-Generals Graham Thompson, Andrew Fuller, Luke Martin, Norman Wright and Daniel Perry)
- Brigader-General Oliver Woods' Parachute Brigade
- James Law's Brigade
- Bryan Hill's Brigade
On the 31st of January, Prekonate indicated the opening of hostilities; although the official Prekovi notification accused the Jesselton Pact of violations of international law, it did not declare war. The next day, Stafford issued his own orders to begin attacking the Vyzant Republic, which was followed by a condemnation from Questarian foreign minister, Anders Samuelsen. The Morivaine diplomatic mission ordered the de-mobilisation of the National Republic of Karaman Army and noted its intention to defend the National Republic, but not attack the Vyzant Republic:
The fighting is defined around three major areas; the Bafra highlands, in which Prekovi-Vyzant forces were able to capture the city of Bafra temporarily, Corum, in which Morivaine troops disarmed the Questarian headquarters, and the Sajur plain, in which Alexander Stafford's 48th Corps fought Tomáš Hradecký's XXI Army and advanced 300 kilometres before the war ended.
Corum and western operations
Corum, despite being the capital of Karaman, did not see much fighting during the war. With most Questarian troops absent, Morivaine and National Guard forces were quick to occupy the city's key zones and offer a buffer between the Questarian-Karamish and Prekovi forces in the city.
After the coup d'etat, Morivaine troops moved rapidly to secure the Green Zone, and established roadblocks around the city. On the 4th of February, Morivaine troops began seizing bridge crossings over the river Sajur, but did not take full control over the river until the 8th of February, by which time Questarian troops had managed to put up enough pontoon bridges to bring across enough supplies to continue fighting. At the same time, they occupied the Corum International Airport, and lay siege to the MAC-K headquarters in Corum; this surrendered on the 5th, without any fighting.
On the 6th of February, Corum was completely surrounded by Morivaine and National Guard troops, who prevented the Questarian and Karamish Army forces from crossing into Prekovi Corum; this part of the city did not see any fighting during the conflict. From the 5th of February onwards, where possible, Morivaine forces in Corum and elsewhere in Karaman arrested Karamish Army leaders who were seen as being in favour of the conflict. Most of these officers surrendered, but there were some minor clashes between Morivaine and Karamish Army troops, especially in the later stages of the conflict.
Bafra highlands operations
Bafra was the site of the Questarian detention camps where Islamic terrorists were kept. Prekonate had accused Questers of training terrorists in these camps, who they alleged were then sent into the Vyzant Republic. The Bafra region also had the highest proportion of ethnic Vyzants in the National Republic; the region was therefore the primary objective of the the Vyzant Army, led by Markos Tassi. After weeks of preparation, the Vyzants launched an invasion of the Bafra highlands on the 29th of January, without consulting the Prekovi military headquarters.
Bafra was defended by the Questarian 39th Brigade and the Karamish Army's Bafra Brigade, as well as armed elements of the Karamish National Police. By the 5th of February, Vyzant forces had fought their way through to the city, and a battle of attrition followed. Almost 45,000 Vyzant troops, later aided by Prekovi paratroops, pushed back the defenders of the city. By the 9th, they succeeded in splitting the Questarian and Karamish brigades. The Karamish forces surrendered on the 13th with the capture of their headquarters in the post office. Questarian forces did not formally surrender, but the 39th Brigade launched a final breakout on the 15th, abandoning the city. More than 2,000 Questarian troops were captured and 500-600 killed. The commander of the Brigade and his deputy committed suicide.
Bafra was re-invested on the 18th by Morivaine reinforcements and the Questarian 44th Brigade, aided by the Karamish National Guard. The city was finally recaptured on the 27th. Prekovi paratroop forces signed a truce with the Morivaine-Questarian leadership, and the Vyzant Army withdrew, with most of its major units disbanding during the retreat. The core survivors of the Vyzant forces later became part of the post-war Vyzant insurgency. The type of urban warfare which was fought in the city, with rules of engagement often ignored and collateral damage common, resulted in a high number of civilian casualties: almost 5,500 civilians were killed and nearly three quarters of the city dehoused.
Sajur plain operations
With most Questarian forces in the southeast, the Questarian military command viewed the fall of Bafra as inevitable. It therefore took the decision to attack into the Vyzant Republic. Since both Questers and Prekonate had the bulk of their forces on the Sajur plain, the fertile farming area of Karaman, most of the war's major battles took place there. Questers committed three divisions (one Karamish) and 100,000 men to battle against three Prekovi divisions and 75,000 men. On 1st February, preceded by several large air raids and an artillery bombardment that included chemical weapons, Questarian troops launched a surprise attack over the river Sajur, in a battle lasting three days. Prekovi General Rudolf Lehár's own command was attacked by chemical weapons, and although he survived, the breakdown in command and communications resulted in a disorderly Prekovi response. Lehar's forces withdrew and were pursued by the Questarian Minerva Division and Artemis Division.
Between the 5th and 17th of February, Questarian forces pursued the withdrawing Prekovi troops, defeating them in the First Battle of Route 255 on the 9th and beating off a Prekovi counter-attack in the Second Battle of Route 255 on the 13th. Between the 15th and 17th of February, the Questarian 22nd Division was able to divide the Prekovi 3rd and 68th Divisions, almost destroying the 68th Motorised Rifle Division in the Battle of Adaklı. Questarian air-mobile forces captured Burdur on the 17th and it was linked with the main force on the 18th. With the extra fuel captured from the Burdur oil facility, Stafford launched a second counter-attack against the 70th Tank Division, which was encircled and practically destroyed in the Battle of Şırnak between the 18th and 20th of February.
The capture of Burdur caused a wave of rebellions in the Vyzant Republic, forcing Prekonate's relief forces to be held back to ensure law and order. Prekovi troops in the field had been divided, and Questarian troops had advanced 300-kilometres into the Vyzant Republic by February 22nd. Consequently, on February 24th, the Prekovi government opened negotiations. In total, the battle claimed more than 8,000 Questarian soldiers and approximately 10,000 Prekovi killed. Neither side has officially disclosed its casualty figures.
The Vyzant Republic was comprised of a large Vyzant minority and a small Karamish majority. Internal displacements since the civil war have made demographic analysis difficult, but the balance was estimated at 60% Karamish and 40% Vyzant by the Maredoratic League. Karamish human rights organisations had accused the Republic of systemic human rights abuses since it was established. The Karamish Nationalist Party was founded in the Republic in 2013 and its armed wing, the People's Security Units (KMP-IGB) waged a low-scale insurgency against the Vyzant authorities, who were backed by the Prekovi Army.
On the day of invasion, the KNP declared a general strike, and there were clashes with security forces across the Republic. After the capture of Burdur, these strikes intensified into riots, and then a full scale uprising. With armed clashes on the streets between ethnic Vyzants and Karamish, Prekonate was obliged to keep its troops in the cities and urban areas to keep order. Order was re-established, but since these forces could not be used in the battle, Prekonate was forced to sue for peace. The Karamish resistance during the war in north Karaman is referred to in Karaman as the Uprising.
It is estimated that more than 15,000 civilians were killed and up to 100,000 displaced from their homes during the uprising.
By February 18th, Bafra had been re-invested by Morivaine and National Guard forces, and the city was re-captured completely on the 27th of February. The near-collapse of the Vyzant government made centralised control of the Vyzant Army difficult, and Vyzant commanders exercised a high degree of autonomy. In the east of the country, Prekonate had taken significant casualties, and had been forced to use its reinforcements to maintain order. On the 24th of February, Prekonate opened negotiations and a de-facto ceasefire began. From the 26th of February, Prekonate began to phase a withdrawal of its forces from Karaman.
As Prekovi troops withdrew from their positions, Questarian and Karamish forces advanced in their place. By March 29th the last Prekovi troops departed Karaman, and the Emergency Government of the Vyzant Republic (KEAVD), having received guarantees from Morieux that Vyzants would be protected from violence and forced appropriation, signed an unconditional surrender. Some armed Vyzant groups opted to defy the KEAVD and the Treaty and sporadic guerilla warfare continues to this day.
Humanitarian impact and war crimes
Orders of battle
Main article: Order of battle of the 2015 Karaman War