Borgosesia

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Republic of Borgosesia
Repubblica di Borgosesia
Flag of Borgosesia Coat of Arms of Borgosesia
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: "Sempre avanti"
Italian: "Always forward."
Anthem: Inno San Marco
(English: Saint Mark Hymn)
Location of Borgosesia (green)
– in Alisna ( light green )
– in Maredoratica ( dark grey )
CapitalSeso
Largest Valsesia
Official languages Italian
Recognised regional languages German
Romansh
Demonym Borgosesian
Government Republic under a military dictatorship
 •  President Lanfranco Crognale
Legislature Revolutionary Committee For National Reconstruction
Establishment
 •  Valsesia Declaration 12 July 1479 
 •  Borgosesian Revolution 19 January 1800 
 •  War of Indepencence 30 January 1919 
 •  March on Seso 15 July 1935 
 •  Constitutional reform 15 August 2014 
 •  July 2017 coup 4 July 2017 
Area
 •  242,000 km2
93,436 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 3.7
Population
 •  2013 estimate 32,585,300
 •  2010 census 32,579,301
 •  Density 93.3/km2
241/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $890.65 billion
 •  Per capita $27,540
HDI .857
very high
Currency Lira (bl)
Time zone CAMT (UTC)+1:00
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ba

Borgosesia, officially the Republic of Borgosesia (Italian: Repubblica di Borgosesia) is a sovereign state and unitary republic under a military dictatorship located principally in southern Alisna, and partially in Leucia via Saint Andrew and Saint John. Borgosesia shares land borders to the north with Silgadin; and to the east with Pollona. The Maredoratic Sea forms its entire southern border. The total area of Borgosesia is 242 thousand square kilometers (93436.72 sq mi), inhabited by over 32 million people, and the national language is Italian.

Borgosesia was first settled by Sessitensians in the early third century. Borgosesia soon became the economic, cultural and political hub of the Sessitensian Empire until its collapse in the 7th century. Borgosesia was not united again until 1479 with the formation of the Union of Borgosesia, a monarchical confederation that solidified the country's territorial boundaries and national character. The Union collapsed during the Borgosesian Revolution in 1800, and Borgosesia was annexed by the Moravian Empire as an autonomous region. Under Moravia, Borgosesia managed its internal affairs and the governing of its colony in Galkayo. Borgosesia formed part of Moravia until the Great Maredoratic War, during which it broke off and formed the Seso Republic in 1919. The republic, although democratic, was unstable, and it collapsed shortly thereafter, leading to the establishment of the Borgosesian State under a fascist dictatorship in 1935. The fascists rapidly industrialized the country and aggressively stamped out all forms of free expression. Borgosesia experienced a wave of liberalizations which started in 2006 and culminated in 2014 with the formal end of fascism as the state ideology. Between 2014 and 2017, Borgosesia existed as the Borgosesian State until a coup led by the Armed Forces of Borgosesia following the Borgosesian corruption scandal of 2017. The Revolutionary Committee For National Reconstruction is a military junta that has established authority in Borgosesia.

Borgosesia has a rapidly growing economy, although Borgosesia lags behinds its neighbors in gross domestic product and quality of life. It is a member of the Maredoratic League.

History

Etymology

The word 'Borgosesia' is Italian for Burnus Sexii, a Latin phrase derived from the union of 'borgo' (from the Latin burgus, a fortified place) and 'Sesia', from the Latin Sessitensis.

Unification

A period-depiction of the Battle of Buoldefifanti, led by Pezzanan King Leonhard I
The complete collapse of the Sessistensian Empire in 600 led to a fracturing of the province of Borgosesia into its imperial counties. Power in these counties were held by ducati that took on the roles of sovereigns of their respective land allotments. By 800, the Kingdom of Pezzana and the Kingdom of Seso emerged as the prominent foci of power. Both of the kingdoms adopted their own currencies and worked closely with feudal leaders to maintain control. The power of these two kingdoms rivaled the Catholic Church, which was located in Seso at the time. By the 10th century, political parties in the kingdoms emerged among the ducati: Pezzanesi, who supported the Kingdom of Pezzana and the King of Pezzana as the primary ruler of Borgosesia; Sesianesi, who supported the Kingdom of Seso and the King of Seso as the primary ruler of Borgosesia; and Papisti, who supported power held in the Catholic Church. These parties held less sway in the Republic of Nasciano and the Republic of Crescentino and Varallo, which sought to avoid the infighting of the inner kingdoms.

Several conflicts, which historians refer to as the Ducal Wars, between the 10th century and the 15th century pushed power to Pezzana. The Battle of Buoldefifanti in 1354 between the Kingdom of Seso and the Kingdom of Pezzana over land areas held by the Buoldefifanti family resulted in an overwhelming Pezzanan victory. The Second Battle of Buoldefifanti, between the Papist-supported Fobesian Union, again resulted in a Pezzan victory. By the 14th century, the modern-day provinces of Vocca and Biella, the northernmost territories of the Kingdom of Seso, had turned Pezzanese. Pezzana itself spoke both Romansch and Italian, although King Valter I of the Kingdom of Pezzana only spoke Romansch. By the time he took the throne in 1420, most of the Kingdom of Seso was under his control, along with the Fobesian Union. He led armies west to conquer the Republic of Nasciano and the Grand Duchy of Rimasciate. They were defeated in 1425. The Republic of Crescentino and Varallo surrendered in 1426 with no contest.

Valter I declared the establishment of the Union of Borgosesia in November of 1479, and he styled himself King of the Union of Borgosesia.

Union of Borgosesia

The Reggia di Valsesia, the former royal palace to the King of Borgosesia, and later the summer home of the Emperor of Moravia. It is now a museum.
The unification of Borgosesia under one crown brought stability to Borgosesia, although unification did not cancel longstanding agreements between the duchies, former republics, families and merchant guilds of the region. Unification did, however, put an end to infighting between the duchies, as local leaders benefited greatly from the increase in stability and safety brought by a unified military, and also because stepping out of line would cause a significant military backlash from the kingdom. The most powerful force in Borgosesia became the monarchy, but it was not the only focus of power. Nor was it completely sovereign over every group.

The five major guilds of Borgosesia, the arti maggiori, wielded significant authority in economic matters. This included the Arte di Fobesia, which was comprised of merchants, finishers and dyers of foreign cloth; the Arte del Cambio, which was comprised of bankers and money-changers; the Arte del Prodotto, which was comprised of blacksmiths; the Arte della Regalità, which was comprised of wool manufacturers and merchants; and the Arte dei Medici, which was comprised of doctors and physicians. The guilds worked to protect the rights and political clout of the groups they represented from laws created by local governments. With unification, the guilds moved to draw closer with the crown and to enact laws to ease taxes and improve business. The guilds also protected its members from competitors, and fought competing, smaller guilds.

Long withstanding issues held by the duchies over the involvement of guilds in local politics were brought before the monarchy, but groups were incredibly reluctant to compromise. The Catholic Church was the major competing source of power to the King. The Pope of the Catholic Church crowned the King, and the Church tended to endorse the actions of the King. The Church was, however, independent, and on several occasions actively spoke out against the crown. Political motives of all parties involved meant that, although an absolute monarch, the King of Borgosesia could not act with impunity, and that Borgosesia operated more similarly to a confederation of states rather than a unified Kingdom.

A painting of Federico IV, who was incredibly popular for his actions at the Red Coronation and the reestablishment of the Ducal Congresses
The continued rule of the Union of Borgosesia unified the disparate groups over time. Historians divide the history of the Union in two stages. The first stage occurs from the establishment of the Union until the death of Valter III in 1560. The last direct heir of House De Vivo, the Union experienced a brief period of instability referred to as the Five Roads Crisis, a historic crossroads that splintered out into five historic highways that led to the capitals of the duchies of Borgosesia, where Valter III collapsed and died. His closest living relative was found to be Giorgio III, a second cousin and a member of House Piovene. Giorgio III earned papal support and became King that year, shifting the capital of Borgosesia from Pezzana to Valsesia in the south, and also marking a shift of ruling from the northern Fleckenwalder culture to the southern Borgo-Karamish culture.

From 1560, historians agree that House Piovene's extensive list of relatives serving as cardinals and prists in the Catholic Church worked to cement stability between the crown and the church. That relationship with the Church would last until the crown fell out of favor with the church in 1790, five years before the Borgosesian Revolution.

The second period of the Union of Borgosesia saw a dramatic increase in economic and cultural development, with Valsesia and Seso becoming centers of education and art in Alisna. The spread of universities led to a better-educated population that began calling for political reforms in the early 17th century. King Enrico VIII responded by instating Ducal Congresses in the duchies that would balance the power of the local dukes. This infuriated the ruling political elite, which led to Enrico VIII's assassination in 1688. His son, Federico IV, took the throne feigning apathy for the death of his father, promising to support the power of the duchies.

Celestino III, the last king of Borgosesia to rule, suffered from dementia and schizophrenia, and as such did not wield real power
The dukes of the provinces were invited to the coronation of Federico IV. Federico IV ordered his personal guard to slaughter the five of the six dukes, along with their respective royal families. He ordered that their heads be put on pikes outside the gates of the palace in Valsesia, with a sign stating "May tyrants always fall in the face of justice." Historians refer to this event as the Red Coronation. The only duke left alive was Duke Giovanni of the Duchy of Crescentino and Varallo, the only member of the duchies not involved in the murder of Enrico VIII. Federico IV appointed his relatives as the new dukes of the mainland duchies, and reestablished the Ducal Congresses established by his father. This marks the first semblance of democracy in Borgosesia, although members of the Ducal Congresses could only be members of nobility or the merchant guilds.
A depiction of Borgosesian colonial troops firing upon retreating Galkayans in the First Galkayan Civil War
Federico IV ruled until 1750, when his third and only living son Celestino III took the throne. Both of Federico IV's two older sons had died of unknown illness, and Celestino III himself suffered from dementia and schizophrenia. From 1750 to the collapse of the Union, the Chancellor of the Conclave of the Duchies, the royal council of the Union, served as the real power of Borgosesia.

The Chancellor of the Conclave of the Duchies, along with the Conclave of the Duchies, was working to continue the work of Federico IV in the capture of Galkayo. Celestino III, who sat in on the Conclave of the Duchies sessions, often flew into bouts of rage over his lack of involvement in the proceedings. To placate him out of respect for his father and of the office, the Chancellor of the Conclave, then Duke Placido Salzano, granted him authority to direct the war in Galkayo in December of 1752. By that time, however, the war in Galkayo was almost decisively won. In February of 1753 Borgosesia annexed Galkayo as an overseas territory. Celestino III declared a Borgosesian Empire "that would last ten centuries more."

Absorption into Moravia

Further information: Borgosesian Revolution and Moravian Empire
Republican soldiers (in blue) fought the Royal Army (in red) after they stormed the Royal Palace in Valsesia in 1788
The collapse of the Union of Borgosesia ironically commenced with the declaration of the Borgosesian Empire by Celestino III in 1753. The high cost of the war and the colonial army was mitigated through higher taxes, which caused widespread disdain in the populace. Two famines between 1760 and 1775 further exacerbated tensions between the government, the citizenry, the church, the merchant guilds, and the duchies. The further deteriorating mental state of Celestino III and a lack of confidence in the Conclave of the Duchies and its Chancellor led to organized strikes in 1782 by the major and minor merchant guilds, brining the national economy to a halt. Among the striking guilds were the butchers and bakers guilds, leading to a shortage of food in communities across the country. Popular uprisings targeting guild houses and ducal government buildings broke out in 1785. Historians mark this as the beginning of the Borgosesian Revolution.

Educated liberals primarily in Seso and Valsesia began advocating for a representative republic, which was widely popular among the citizenry. Mass protests against the crown in Valsesia were met with violent resistance. In 1786, an estimated 600 people marching to demand Celestino III give the citizenry bread were gunned down by the Royal Army at the outskirts of Valsesia along the road to the Royal Palace. Dubbed the Bread March Massacre, the killings sparked the first combat between republicans, loyalists, and the various armies of the duchies vying for power.

By 1788, the power of the central government had all but collapsed. Republican soldiers stormed the Royal Palace and slaughtered the Royal Army soldiers therein, sustaining heavy casualties. Upon reaching the central council room, they found only Celestino III as the Conclave of the Duchies had long disbanded, each of the dukes going to lead their respective lands. The commander of the republicans, Ugolino Dentin, famously stated out of pity for Celestino III "Borgosesia has been ruled by tyrants hiding behind a man terrorized by head spells." The republicans spared the King and allowed for him and his caretakers to flee Valsesia to Varallo, where Celestino III later died. The revolution took a dramatic turn in 1795 after years of bloody fighting with little change in territory. The Conclave of the Church and the Borgosesian Realms, a meeting of church officials and the dukes of Borgosesia, decided that Borgosesia's salvation would come from becoming a realm of the Moravian Empire, which had sent emissaries offering protection to the western duchies.

The Catholic Church withdrew its support for reestablishing the Union of Borgosesia in 1795. The dukes of Borgosesia found the heir to the throne of Borgosesia in Varallo, who was only 15 years old, the youngest of five and the only living heir to Celestino III. The Catholic Church coronated him Federico V, in reference to Federico IV. He was given the title Archduke of Borgosesia and Hero of the Realm. The dukes of Borgosesia recognized his authority to act as their advocate to the Moravian Empire.The Moravian Emperor agreed for Borgosesia to enter the Moravian Empire, recognizing Archduke Federico V as the unifying leader of the Borgosesian Duchies. The Moravian Empire invaded Borgosesia in 1795 to put down the republican insurrection. In 1800, Archduke Federico V swore fealty to the Moravian Emperor, leading to the official collapse of the Union of Borgosesia and Borgosesia's annexation into Moravia. Under Moravian Rule, Borgosesia entered into a process of reconstruction guided by Moravian authorities, although Borgosesia was granted significant autonomy in its management of internal affairs and management of its colony, Galkayo. In exchange, Moravia proper acted in place of Borgosesia in terms of all other legislation, military and foreign affairs. Under Moravian rule, Borgosesia became significantly influenced by eastern Alisnan culture, art, philosophy and political ideology.

Borgosesian War of Independence

The red, white and green tricolor used by the Seso Republic between 1919 and 1935
The Borgosesian War of Independence resulted in the creation of the Seso Republic, a semi-presidential federal republic established in 1919 after the Borgosesian War of Independence. The Seso Republic was the first democratic government to rule Borgosesia in its history. The outbreak of hostilities of the Great Maredoratic War in 1917 brought Borgosesia to war against the League of the Three Empires, primarily Styria and Questers on the Alisnan front and Maalukhir on the Alqosian front via Borgosesian Galkayo, which Moravian Borgosesia had been allowed to govern. Through the course of the war, several thousand Borgosesians died due to combat related circumstances and disease. Although significant gains were made against Styria and Questers, popularity with the war waned in Borgosesia as pro-independence sentiments flared up in the country. Tensions between Borgosesian revolutionaries and the Moravian Empire came to a boiling point with the capture of Seso on 30 January 1919 by the Movement for the Liberation of Borgosesia (MLB), the primary organized group of revolutionaries. The MLB announced the Borgosesian Declaration of Independence.

The MLB succeeded in rallying popular support for the creation of an independent Borgosesian state. While troops fighting the Styrians generally remained loyal to the Moravian Empire, reserve troops native to Borgosesia or otherwise sympathetic to the cause of independence seized several provinces rapidly. A new front emerged in the western and southern portions of Borgosesia against Moravian loyalists. Due to similar republican movements in Pollona, however, by August of 1919 the republicans had proven victorious, and all Borgosesian troops fighting on the front transitioned to republican control under the Seso Republic. Following the end of the Great Maredoratic War, the Seso Republic struggled to create internal political order in the fragile democracy. As a result of the loss of support from the Moravian Empire, the Seso Republic plunged into a serious economic depression which coincided with the rise of right wing politics in the nation, including the foundation of the Party for National Liberation (PLN) in 1922.

Early fascist era

Supporters of the Party for National Liberation, known as blackshirts, gathered in Seso to force the creation of the Borgosesian state in a bloodless coup.
The lack of inclusion of nationalists in the establishment of the Seso Republic is understood by historians to be one of the major causes of the rise of the Party for National Liberation and the eventual collapse of the Seso Republic. Gonzaga Antonucci, a prominent voice during the Borgosesian War for Independence, founded the Party for National Liberation in 1922 shortly after the Seso Republic was granted independence from Pollona. Antonucci invented the synchronist ideology, which posits that human history is primarily driven by conflict between society and the state, and that class conflict and ethnic conflict can be causally linked to an inherent sociological divide between subjugators and the subjugated. Early Synchronists sought to create a republican government with a limited, constitutionally authoritarian head of state with a strong multi-party legislature that could counteract the powers of the head-of-state.

Matteo Zappa became Antonucci's pupil in 1922, and he took over the party in 1924. Zappa appealed to right-wing and far-right factions that felt voiceless in the Seso Republic. Zappa altered synchronism to fit the mold of fascism, calling synchronism 'Borgosesian fascism.' By the 1930s, the Party for National Liberation was one of the most powerful groups in Borgosesia. The government was unable to police the actions of the PLN, so the PLN was able to use its paramilitary, the Milizia volontaria, to attack socialists and members of the left wing. In 1935, Zappa and his fascists marched on Seso, forcing the government to stand down with threat of violence. The government capitulated and fled to Berry where it formed a government-in-exile. On 15 July 1935, Matteo Zappa declared himself dictator of Borgosesia, taking on the title Grand Marshal of the Borgosesian State.

The government of Borgosesia was immediately restructured to fit the goals of the Party for National Liberation. All opposing political parties were outlawed. A new constitution was drafted that endowed the Grand Marshal with supreme authority over all aspects of the nation. The Party for National Liberation's role was to disseminate fascist ideology into every aspect of life. A Supreme Defense Council was established that would perform delegated duties in place of the Grand Marshal. Civil liberties were significantly curtailed, but the fascist government started straightaway rebuilding the damage done to Borgosesia during the Great Maredoratic War and the Borgosesian War of Independence. Highways, train lines, and new infrastructure were built across the country, providing jobs to thousands. Schools were built, and mandatory education was extended until the age of 17 from 14. Economic development skyrocketed in Borgosesia.

The costs to human rights were, however, severe. Political enemies were imprisoned in a labor camp in northern Pezzana by the Republican Guard, the armed police wing of the Party for National Liberation. Although life in Borgosesia improved for those unwilling or unable to speak out against the regime, those who dared to question the policies of the regime were usually executed. By the time Zappa died in 1975, Borgosesia had transformed from a poor backwater to an industrializing country with a rapidly developing economy.

The Difficult Years

A police investigation of the assisination of PLN representative on 16 March 1978. Multiple assassinations were carried out against fascist politicians during The Difficult Years.
The Difficult Years (Italian: Gli anni difficili) was a period of socio-political turmoil in the Republic of Borgosesia that lasted from the early 1960's to the late 1980's. This period was marked by a wave of terrorism brought on by rejection of certain fascist policies, and was exacerbated by the death of Matteo Zappa, the internal power transition in the country to the leadership of Ulfo Baglio, and the resulting brief power vacuum that inspired several groups to target the fascist government. Colloquially referred to as 'The Struggle' (La lotta), the term "The Difficult Years" was applied to the era in 1990 in an academic article discussing the North Pezzana station bombing. The Difficult Years were characterized by bombings, shootings, and demonstrations against the government. Perhaps the most infamous event was the Kidnapping of Dino Grazioli, the First Secretary of the Supreme Defense Council in 1979. His eventual death at the hands of the Communist Party of Borgosesia led to reprisal killings by the government, which in turn escalated bombings by rebel groups.

The left-wing liberation movement arose from various student and workers organizations that received training from the Berrian Federation to combat the fascist regime. The separatist movement also received training and funding from the Berrian Federation, although it was also supported by Silgadin. These groups held entirely different goals; The Armada Populara, for example, wanted Borgosesia's Romansch speaking north to join Silgadin, while the Brigate San Marco sought the liberation of Borgosesia from the fascist government and the reinstatement of the Borgosesian government-in-exile. The Berrian Service fédéral de renseignement et de sécurité (SFRS) was closely involved in the training, supply, and coordination of groups in Borgosesia. Groups were hence advised to avoid fighting one another, and to direct hostilities towards the government. This policy was largely followed, save for minor skirmishes between left-wing paramilitaries and Ordine Nero, which operated independently of Berry and sought to create a hard-line fascist state in northern Borgosesia.

The definite end of the Difficult Years came in 1998 with the Berrian recognition of Borgosesia, and the defeat of most rebel groups. Most rebels managed to flee to Berry, but hundreds were arrested by the Group for National Security and were later executed.

Liberalization

Starting in 1985, the administration of Grand Marshal Peleo Brunetti began implementing limited reforms in an attempt to liberalize the country slightly and stop the violence of The Difficult Years. With these reforms came opening of relations with the international community and a cessation of certain fascist economic policies. These were largely welcomed by the fascist elite, although a minority within the party with connections to the military forced Brunetti out in 1990. The hard-line military faction appointed Sabazio Bruni to the role of Grand Marshal, who attempted to back-track on political reforms initiated by Brunetti. After three years, he died of old age, although some documents with redacted information referring to destroyed documents suggest the conditions surrounding his death were covered up.

Following the death of Bruni, a military junta led by the Supreme Defense Council, the upper governing body of the Party for National Liberation, began to rule the country in the style of a military dictatorship. During this time, the Party for National Liberation went through an internal crisis, and scores of politicians were purged or sent to labor camps for stances contrary to the party manifesto. By 2000, however, a growing voice in the PLN led by Regolo Vertucci, a high-ranking party official from Seso, threatened to topple the junta with an opposing faction of the military. Without blood, the junta yielded control of the country to Vertucci, who then proceeded to execute every member of the junta previously, as well as the top level politicians who collaborated with the junta. He released the surviving political prisoners and addressed the nation promising to reform the country. By 2006, political parties other than the PLN had become legal, and the free flow of information had been permitted to go underway. Fascist economic ideals were being exchanged for free market principles aimed at undoing the damage of decades of corruption on the part of the government. Surveillance of the citizenry decreased significantly, and the military became firmly sided with Vertucci. While the citizenry enjoyed new found freedoms, Vertucci launched a campaign of purging the PLN of hard-line elements, often publicly while announcing their crimes to the citizenry. Vertucci became increasingly popular with the people of Borgosesia.

In 2014, Vertucci ordered a referendum to take place to decide the future of Borgosesia, namely to decide whether or not it would retain the current governmental structure with reforms or adopt a new structure. The electorate decided overwhelmingly to keep the current structure with reforms. Before the referendum took place, Vertucci legalized all free expression and political organization. He accepted lessened constitutional powers in his position in favor of an elected government headed by a Prime Minister.

Maria Ciavarella was elected Prime Minister of Borgosesia, the first since the collapse of the Seso Republic in 1935. Although the country had banned the Party for National Liberation, disavowed fascism, allowed for free elections and local government, the country was still ruled by a political elite, most of which have formed party of the United Borgosesia party, which held most power in the Chamber of the People. For this reason, Borgosesia was considered by many to be a dominant party state rather than a true democracy.

July 2017 coup

President Lanfranco Crognale led the coup against the Third Borgosesian Republic, establishing the Fourth Borgosesian Republic
In June 2017, allegations of corruption against politicians across Borgosesia's three branches were levied by the National Police, the culmination of efforts launched by the Ministry of Justice after the Republic of Galkayo accused Borgosesia of supporting the far-right New Free State Army terrorist group in late 2016. Initial investigations held by the Chamber of the People indicated no such support took place, but the independent law enforcement review concluded that at least 500 individuals across the Borgosesian national government, including in the Chamber of the People and the cabinet, had some role in orchestrating funds and material support go to far-right extremists in Galkayo with the intention of upsetting regional politics there.

Further evidence of corruption was discovered when financial investigators of the Border Police began to uncover links between Borgosesian financial giant DuoCredito, members of the Borgosesian political elite, and foreign business contacts. Evidence suggested that several illicit and illegal loans and other use of finances had taken place, including bribery and money laundering.

Following the allegations, Grand Marshal Regolo Vertucci dissolved the Chamber of the People and activated emergency reserve powers, granting the Supreme Defense Council rule of the country. Confidence in this move by the public was low, however, as nearly half of the Supreme Defense Council had been arrested on corruption charges, and investigators were looking into links to the office of the Grand Marshal and the Supreme Court.

On July 4 2017, Commandant of the Armed Forces Lanfranco Crognale led the combined Army, Navy, Air Force and Republican Guard in a coup to seize power in Borgosesia. The coup, which was bloodless, saw the dissolution of all three branches of the Borgosesian government, including the Borgosesian constitution. Grand Marshal Vertucci and the Supreme Defense Council were taken into custody, and the investigation into corruption was taken into control by the military.

At the end of the day on July 4, Lanfranco Crognale announced the formation of the Revolutionary Committee For National Reconstruction, which would serve as the government, legislature, and court system infrastructure for Borgosesia with the goal of rooting out corruption and re-establishing Borgosesian democracy. Lanfranco Crognale was appointed President of the newly-named Republic of Borgosesia.

Politics

The Chamber of the People. housed in the Palace of the Republic, in Seso
The politics of Borgosesia are conducted within the framework of a unitary republic under a military dictatorship. The current political system is a result of the July 2017 coup, which toppled the Third Borgosesian Republic, also known as the Borgosesian State and which lasted from 2014 to 2017. The Republic of Borgosesia, also known as the Fourth Borgosesian Republic, was formed in July 2017 following a successful, bloodless coup.

The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Republic of Borgosesia is administered by the Revolutionary Committee For National Reconstruction, which dissolved the previous executive, legislative, and judicial branches following the successful coup in 2017. The Revolutionary Committee is formed by a Major Council of 12 individuals representing each of the branches of the Armed Forces. There are also 10 Minor Councils, each of which has a Council Chairman. Each Minor Council acts as a ministry, and is responsible for the governance of the country. The Major Council acts as an executive and legislative board, and its decisions are law. The Major Council appoints the President of the Republic, currently Commandant Lanfranco Crognale, who was the head of the Armed Forces prior to the July 2017 coup.

The President of the Republic is essentially a dictator under the rules of the Revolutionary Committee.

The judicial branch of Borgosesia is headed by the Supreme Court of Borgosesia, which was reorganized following the July 2017. The judicial system is made up of provincial courts, appellate courts and the Supreme Court. The court system handles both civil and criminal cases. The essential infrastructure of the judicial system was retained following the coup, although most of its judges were removed from office and replaced.

Military

The Dardo IFV is the main Infantry fighting vehicle of the Borgosesian Army
The Armed Forces of Borgosesia (Forze armate di borgosesia) are charged with defending the sanctity and sovereignty of Borgosesia against all threats, foreign and domestic. The Borgosesian Army (Esercito borgosesiano), Navy (Marina militare), and Air Force (Aeronautica militare) are three separate branches of the Armed Forces. The Republican Guard also falls under the Ministry for Defense, and it functions as a military gendarmerie. The Borgosesian total military spending stands at 24.88 billion, roughly 4% of the national budget.

The Borgosesian Army is the largest branch of the armed forces, with 150 thousand active duty personnel and just over 300 thousand reservists. The Army is mostly comprised of conventional motorized and mechanized units. The Army also operates the military intelligence agency Gruppo dell'intelligenza centrale (Central Intelligence Group). The Borgosesian service rifle is the Beretta ARX 160.

Officers of the Republican Guard
The Borgosesian Navy is the second largest branch with just over 40 thousand active duty personnel and around 20 thousand reservists. Borgosesia primarily operates a green water navy charged with coastal defense. The Navy possesses 100 commissioned ships and 21 aircraft. It relies on a larger number of small-to-medium vessels, including frigates and littoral combat vessels. The Navy does not possess an aircraft carrier. The Navy also operates the Corp of Naval Infantry (Corpo della fanteria navale), which operate as both amphibious naval infantry and coastal defense and naval artillery. The Navy also performs the function of a coast guard.

The Air Force (Aeronautica militare) is the smallest of the three branches of the Armed Forces. The Air Force totals just over 30 thousand personnel and it fields 500 aircraft. The Air Force's strategy is based on mobility and air-defense and, therefore, relies on a large number of fighters and surface to air weapons with a comparably small amount of air-land assault capabilities.

The Republican Guard (Guardia repubblicana) is the national gendarmerie of Borgosesia. After the Vertucci Reforms of 2014, it ceased to be the paramilitary wing of the Party for National Liberation and went through drastic reforms, including the prosecution of top-level officials who took part in crimes against humanity during the fascist regime. The Republican Guard today serves as a national police force responsible for patrolling highways, government buildings, and the border. There are roughly 50 thousand members of the Republican Guard, three-fifths of which are comprised of active law enforcement officers. The Republican Guard is not a branch of the military per se, but it falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry for Defense, and its rank structure mirrors the Borgosesian Army very closely.

Economy

A wind farm in the background of a village on Varallo
The Bucelli M5 Super 8 camera was iconic for its lifetime, and was widely used across Maredoratica
Borgosesia has a capitalist mixed economy. Borgosesia faces the intersection between the highly developed, industrialized southern provinces and the comparatively undeveloped rural north. The disparity in quality of life between the south and north was intensified during the 2014 Economic Crisis, which also fueled the flames of political dissent in the fragile transition period between the fascist Republic of Borgosesia and the current government. Today, Borgosesia is in the process of rebuilding its economy and reigniting business. Borgosesia has entered into several economic deals with nations like Pollona and Styria to create jobs and increase commerce in southern Alisna.

Borgosesia produced 300 billion kWh of electricity in 2012, and in the same year only used 265 billion kWh. Since initial energy reform goals implemented by Ulfo Baglio and put into further force by Regolo Vertucci, Borgosesia has made huge investments into transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable industry and nuclear power. The country aims to be carbon-free by 2075. According to the Maredoratic Environmental Organization, 50 percent of electricity generation in January of 2015 came from sources that produce no carbon emissions, namely wind, nuclear and solar energy.

Wind energy competes with nuclear energy to be the top provider of carbon free emissions. Wind is often seen as the superior in the public eye due to widespread fear of dangers oftentimes associated with nuclear energy. Thirty percent of the country's energy came from wind in 2014, with 28 percent coming from nuclear power. Solar power lags behind wind and nuclear due to its cost, although it is growing in popularity along the southern coast.

The success of renewable industry has much to do with the former fascist government's heavy subsidies and controls of the energy industry in the country. Since liberalization, many companies have formed from the split up of the government monopoly on power, driving prices down in most regions of the country.

Around 50 percent of energy expenditures still come from fossil fuels, namely coal and natural gas. Most fossil fuels need to be imported from neighboring states, further driving Borgosesian desire for energy independence.

Product design and industrial design are leading markets in southern Borgosesia, with some of the most iconic appliances, tools and machinery being designed and manufactured in the country. Manufacturing is still a major staple of the Borgosesian economy, especially in central provinces.

Design firms like Bucelli and Piconi are iconic for a wide arrange designs of consumer and industrial products. The presence of design forms and traditionally heavy handed government regulation on foreign production of goods has led to most design firms to have their products produced domestically rather than abroad. The inability to compete with foreign companies that produce cheaper products has led to a struggle in the past decade for Borgosesian companies to keep up. In response, many companies have looked into niche markets to produce luxury products, although consumer appliances, equipment and industrial tools remain the major export of such companies. Automobile manufacturing is also major element of the Borgosesian economy.

Demographics

Languages

A bilingual sign with directions in Italian and German in Burgenia, Borgosesia
Italian is the sole national language of Borgosesia. Romansh, and German are recognized regional languages that enjoy legal status in provinces where they are spoken.

Italian is the lingua franca, and it's spoken as a first language by 75 percent of the population. Ninety-eight percent of the population understands Borgosesian as either a first language or a second language. Although the constitution of Borgosesia affirms that the only national language of Borgosesia is Italian, it labels minority languages as "items of significant cultural heritage" and supports their use by regional legislatures. Several decades of fascism, however, has nearly wiped out use of minority languages related to Italian. Other than immigrant languages, the two primary native minority languages of Borgosesia are German and Romansh.

The majority of Borgosesia's one million German speaking population reside in the semi-autonomous province Burgenia (Bürgenland). This region was historically part of Styria until the Great Maredoratic War, which saw the region ceded to the newly established Seso Republic. Despite the fall of the Seso Republic and rise of the fascist regime, which typically promoted Italian language policies over other languages, the mountainous region of Burgenia resisted attempts at eliminating the language. Unlike Borgosesia's Romansh speaking population, a significant portion of German speaking Borgosesians wish greater autonomy or independence from Borgosesia.

Romansh is spoken by roughly 500 thousand Borgosesians, most of which live in in northern Ternuzzo near the border of Silgadin or in major cities. Romansh speakers have inhabited Borgosesia since before unification in 1479. Valter De Vivo, the first King of Borgosesia, spoke Romansh as his first language. The majority of the Romansh speaking community is distinct from Romansh speaking Silgadin, although a minority identifies with Silgadin and wants northern Borgosesia to form a union with the country.

The revival of minority languages in Borgosesia is supported by the Ministry of Regional and Linguistic Affairs. Since the collapse of fascism, German-speaking and Romansch-speaking ethnic Borgosesians have been offered the chance to resettle in Borgosesia with reduced cost to land and housing as a form of reparations for persecution suffered under the fascist government. Additionally, minor languages have been given special protection to promote their regrowth.

Despite efforts, however, groups of German speaking advocacy groups have called for greater autonomy from the government. The refusal to codify the existence of Burgenia into law resulted in mass protests on the part of Burgenian Borgosesians.

Religion

Borgosesia religiosity
religion percent
Sévéracois Catholicism
  
81%
Episcopal Lutheran Church
  
10%
No religion
  
6%
Others
  
3%

Christianity is the dominant religion in Borgosesia, and it touches nearly every aspect of life, although the Constitution of Borgosesia declares Borgosesia to be officially secular. Most Borgosesians believe in God, or a form of a spiritual life force. According to the most recent government statistics: 92% of Borgosesian citizens responded 'they believe there is a God', 2.8% answered that 'they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force' and 15.2 answered that 'they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force'. Christianity was first introduced to Borgosesia by Mark the Evangelist, who sailed from Karaman to found what is today Episcopal See of Valsesia. The Valsesian Church has played a crucial role in Borgosesian history. Catholics in Borgosesia belong to the Sévéracois Catholics. The country's catholics were divided between the Valsesian Church and the Sévéracois Catholic Church from 1935 to 2015. The March on Seso angered many catholics, who fled the country to reestablish the papacy in Morieux. The Valsesian Church became divided from the rest of the world's Catholics until 2015 when it sought to rejoin with the Sévéracois Catholic Church. The next largest major religious division is Protestantism, with twelve-percent of the country belonging to various churches, the majority of which belong to the Episcopal Lutheran Church of Borgosesia.

Education

Education in Borgosesia is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 18. School is divided into five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia), primary school (scuola elementare), lower-secondary school (scuola superiore), upper-secondary school (scuola secondaria superiore), and university (università). There is both a system of public education, administered by the Ministry of Education, and a private education system.

Health

Healthcare in Borgosesia is provided by private vendors and insurance companies which are partly subsidized by the government. All Borgosesians are required to purchase health insurance of some kind, although the profoundly destitute may regularly apply for a waiver from having health insurance. All hospitals must treat all patients, regardless of ability to pay. Hospitals pass the cost to the insurance companies, which file claims with the Ministry for Health. Claims are analyzed and occasionally brought before a judge in the locality in which the patient was treated if the Ministry for Health finds fault in the claim. Claims are paid out from allotted public money.