Federation Defence

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Federation Defence
Forbundsforsvaret
Questarian defence logo.png
Service branches
Headquarters Ministry of Defence, Jesselton (civil)
Defence General Headquarters, Cardigan (military)
Leadership
Prime Minister Peter Baker
Defence Minister Christopher Mallard
Chief of the National Defence Staff Field Marshal Nathanial Clarke-Phillips
Manpower
Military age 16 (Army)
18 (Others)
Conscription
  • Army: two-three year terms plus ten years in reserves
  • Air Force: two-three year terms for non-skilled personnel
  • Navy: no
  • Airdefence: no
Active personnel 1,700,000 (ranked 2nd)
Reserve personnel Territorial Force: 3.3 million approx.
Other services: 50,000-450,000
Expenditures
Budget $295.5 billion (est) (ranked 1st)
Percent of GDP 10.0% (est)
Industry
Foreign suppliers

The Federation Defence (Danske: Forbundsforsvaret), also known as the Questarian Defence, is the armed forces of Questers. By some measures the Defence is the largest armed force in Alisna and the 2nd-largest in the world. Key details of the Defence are a state secret and international observers believe the state intentionally mis-reports its strength, expenditures, and dispositions. Estimates by international observers suggest that the Defence consists of around 1.7 million active personnel, some 3.3 million reserves, and between 50,000-450,000 personnel involved in defence work[1][2]. The annual budget may exceed more than one tenth of national product[3][4].

The Defence exerts a powerful influence on civil society[5], with conscription, military training in education, military-managed state media, and military representatives on all government planning boards. The Defence played a key role in the Questarian Revolution, and in 2009 took control of the state in a coup d'état lasting five years. Although some observers have called Questers a military state, the Defence has formal and significant oversight from the civilian government. The Commander in Chief is the Prime Minister, but ordinary civilian command is handled by the Minister of Defence. The professional military chief is the Chief of the National Defence Staff.

The Defence consists of the Questarian Fleet, an all-volunteer naval warfare force of 126 commissioned warships, a Fleet Air Arm of 300 aircraft, and an amphibious landing force called the Republican Marine Commandos; the Combined Forces, the land and air warfare force which includes the 1.1 million man regular army, the Territorial Force, air units known as Tactical Air Forces which command over 1,000 military aircraft, and the Questarian Communist Party's armed wing, the Peoples Volunteer Units. In addition to these conventional military forces, the Defence also consists of the Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance Office, the Questarian defence intelligence organisation; the Airdefence of the Federation, an all-volunteer part-time organisation commanding reserve territorial air defence units; and a joint special forces command, Questarian Special Forces.

History

Mission

Defence

Command

The supreme commander of the armed forces is the Chief Commander of the Defence who is nominated by the Trades Union Congress; during the periods of civilian rule, the Congress always appointed the Prime Minister, but between 2009-2014, the Chief Commander of the Defence was the Marshal-General of the Committee of General Security. Since 2014 the Prime Minister has been supreme commander; the current Prime Minister is Peter Baker.

Practically, the day to day administration of the armed forces falls to the Defence Minister, currently Christopher Mallard. The Defence Minister oversees the Ministry of Defence and makes civilian decisions, including setting the budget for national defence, making choices regarding the personnel establishment and structural organisation of the defence, strategic planning, and approval of military exercises.

Military command is exercised by the Chief of the National Defence Staff (CNDS) based in the Ministry of Defence in peacetime and the Federation General Headquarters in wartime. The Chief of the National Defence Staff is chosen by unanimous decision of the Cabinet of Ministers after being selected by the Defence Minister. Five subordinates exercise control over their respective bodies and report directly to the CNDS:

Togther these five chiefs of staff, and the CNDS, constitute the Federation General Staff. In addition during wartime the Chief of Civil Defence and the Director-General of the Office of Combined Operations (OCO) shift headquarters to the General Defence Headquarters and become part of the National Defence Staff. The Federation General Headquarters supports Combined Theatre Headquarters with mixed staffs from the necessary branches with overall command direction from the OCO, which forms the nucleus for joint operation command.

Expenditure

The official published defence expenditures are made yearly in the state budget; for the year 2017-2018, official military expenditure was officially listed as £1,203.4 billion, approximately ₠94 billion.[6][7] However, international observers believe the actual level of spending is much higher. Parts of defence spending are hidden in budgets for other ministries and industries and that those budgets conceal a higher level of spending.[8][9][10] Some analysts estimate actual spending per year to be between ₠145 billion[11] to ₠190 billion[12] to a maximum estimate of ₠225 billion. By some accounts, Questers is the largest defence spender both nominally and per capita in the world.

Weapons of mass destruction

Questarian Republican Artillery rocket launchers firing M290 VX rockets in Karaman, 2015.

Questers does not have nuclear weapons and aborted its nuclear weapons program after signing the Treaty Against Proliferation of Nuclear Armaments. The state co-operates fully with Maredoratic League inspectors. In 2010, the Chief of the League Nuclear Inspectorate, Abraham Willemsen, commented that Questers "skirts the line" between violation of and adherence to the Treaty.

Questers has large reported stockpiles of the nerve agents sarin and VX. Actual stockpiles are classified, but analysts believe the total range to be between 1,900 tonnes and 3,350 tonnes. Questers used VX in the 2015 Karaman War, deploying M290 rockets from its multiple rocket launchers against Prekovi airfields and command centres. Several international observers have accused Questers of using BZ gas against civilians in Karaman as a riot control measure; Questers admitted in 2017 that the use of "various chemical agent weapons systems" was "against peremptory norms" but denied that it was a war crime. In December 2017 Questers paid Prekonate ₠275 million in reparations for the use of VX on its forces during the war.

Until 2000, Questers retained an ‘apocalypse’ deterrent of biological weapons. Although the military forces in the deterrent have been re roled into conventional forces it is believed that biological warfare research continued at the government laboratory at the Starry Down Research Establishment in Pembroke. Foreign analysts suggest that biological weapons such as anthrax, ricin, Yamato encephalitis and others are developed and produced in Starry Down. The Questarian government refuses to comment.

Cyber warfare

Personnel

Every year, approximately 1.2 million boys reach the age of national service (18). Some are already rejected because of poor health or physical defects; in recent years the number has been reported to be about 7.5%. Another 2.5% are rejected for a variety of reasons including criminal conduct and conscientious objection. In addition to this, more than half of the university entrants opt to delay service and become conscripted as officers after their education. A small number volunteer for the Navy, Police, or Air Forces; some join the Peoples Volunteer Units instead. Some conscripts opt to carry out their national service in the police instead of the Army. In the 21st-century, the number of available yearly conscripts to the Army has fluctuated between an absolute low of 395,500 and an absolute high (in 2016) of 690,000. It is reported that in 2017 the Army introduced 675,000 conscripts to service.

Salaries for the volunteer services like the Navy are reasonably high, and the salaries for non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers are above the national average, making remaining in the Army after conscription financially appealing. The Army even pays a relatively high stipend for its national servicemen. Nonethless, the Defence has had critical manpower shortages in the past, especially 2012-2013 and 1997-1999, when reservists had to be called up to fill the gaps in the Army's requirements. Conscripts constitute approximately 60-70% of the active duty manpower of the Defence.

Overseas bases

Location Date Details
Rochehaut 1997-2018 Questarian forces have been deployed in Rochehaut since 1997 under Questarian Troops Rochehaut, consisting of a Brigade, an air force task group and a naval squadron. These units are based in Lighthouse Base, totalling approximately 21,200 personnel. Under the Treaty of Liese, if Rochehaut is in an emergency, the Rochehautese Federal President may mobilise the QTR without first seeking approval from the Questarian government.
Badouma 1999-2018 Questers has deployed troops to Badouma for 19 years under the Questarian Forces in Alqosia. Questers deploys a company of Republican Marines to act as a training force, and one Regiment each of the Republican Engineers, Republican Signals, Republican Medical Corps and Republican Military Police. These units provide Military Assistance to the Civil Power missions for the Badoumese government.

Armed services

Fleet

Indomitable, the largest ship in Questarian service.

Established in 1637 as the Royal Navy, the Questarian Fleet is the oldest established Questarian military branch. The Fleet employs an estimated 51-55,000 personnel manning 126 commissioned warships, with an estimated reserve of around 14,500. Estimate naval expenditure is around ₠36-₠42 billion. The main task of the Fleet is the defence of Questers' sea lines of communication during wartime, and especially the protection of maritime trade in important war goods such as petroleum. In an offensive position, the Fleet's main task is to establish a beachhead with amphibious forces so that units of the Combined Forces may be transported to the frontline.

The Surface Fleet consists of five aircraft carriers, two large and three small, 10 destroyers and 27 frigates. The Subsurface Fleet, which is all-nuclear, is made up of seventeen nuclear attack submarines. The Expeditionary Force is divided into the Beach Force and the Airborne Force and commands six helicopter landing ships and nine dock landing ships. This force can deploy two Brigades of Marines Commandos collectively. In addition to these warships the Fleet also commands 17 offshore patrol vessels, 18 light patrol boats, 7 fast attack craft, 16 mine countermeasures vessels, and 21 auxiliary ships, including three survey ships.

The Fleet commands three additional branches:
Republican Marine CommandosFleet Air ArmNaval Reserve

Combined Forces

An A510 Archer mechanised infantry carrier.

The Combined Forces is the combined land and air service of the Federation Defence. Dating back to the formation of regular professional army units in 1651, the Combined Forces was formed in 1991 with the merger of the Questarian Army and the Peoples Volunteer Units, the armed wing of the Communist Party. The Combined Forces constitutes approximately 1.2 million men under arms at any given time, with more than three million in reserve. It is the largest land Army on the continent of Alisna, with at least 4,500 main battle tanks, 15,000 infantry fighting vehicles and personnel carriers, more than 3,000 artillery pieces and over 1,000 aircraft in its air arm, the Tactical Air Forces.

The mission of the Combined Forces is to protect the territorial integrity of the Federation by garrisoning its borders, and to defeat militarily the enemies of the Federation. The basic tactical unit of the Combined Forces is the division; there are eleven active divisions and twenty reserve divisions in the Territorial Force. Questarian tactical units are assigned to Corps and Armies. Aircraft are commanded by five Tactical Air Forces and divided into Groups and Squadrons. The main role of the tactical air is to provide immediate support for the ground forces, including air supremacy, close support and interdiction.

The head of the Combined Forces is the Chief of the Combined General Staff (currently Alexander Stafford) who commands the staffs of the following services:
Regular ForcesTerritorial ForceTactical Air ForcesPeoples Volunteer Units

Airdefence

A surface to air missile launcher of the Reserve Air Defence Force.

In addition to the conventional military forces like the Navy, Army and Air Force, Questers has a completely reserve air defence force, manned by part-time volunteers, known as Airdefence of the Federation. The Airdefence has approximately 85,000 volunteers, both men and women, manning either Airdefence Observation Posts (AOP) and Nuclear Reporting Posts (NRP) of the Republican Observer Corps, or Volunteer Batteries, equipped with surface to air missiles and in some cases anti-air guns. These batteries protect strategic civilian sites only; military sites are defended by the Tactical Air Forces. In addition to the ground based forces the Territorial Air Defence Reserve trains exclusively female fighter pilots at universities across the country to operate Longmarine Leopard interceptors, with airfields, ground control, and radar all part of the Airdefence.

The Airdefence was activated on a full war-footing during 1991 and 2014, standing up 82,250 personnel in 2014. Its budget in 2017 was estimated at ₠4 billion. The Airdefence is overseen directly by the Minister of Defence; professional command is exercised by a small cadre of fulltime Airdefence personnel led by the Chief of the Air Defence Staff (CADS). Subordinate to the CADS are the major units of the Airdefence, including:
Territorial Air Defence ReserveRepublican Observer Corps

Special services

Military Intelligence

Then Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance Office (Miro) is the overall defence intelligence agency of the Questarian Federation. Although it does not command the Combined Forces and Fleet intelligence organisations, it receives regular reports and information from them. Miro is responsible for the collection of data on other military organisations, in particular monitoring the Pollonan Armed Forces, its units, equipment, and dispositions. Miro deploys foreign agents, but much fewer in number than the Strategic Intelligence Service; it is reported that the main body of Miro's work is monitoring the Pollonan military, including intelligence gathering methods such as signals intelligence, human intelligence, and imaging intelligence.

Special Forces

Questarian Special Operations (KSO) is a directorate of the Defence which acts as a central joint command for operations.

Civilian

Women

Women have historically not been allowed to serve in the armed forces, except in civil auxiliary roles. The Communist government allowed women to join the Navy in all roles except on submarines in 1997, and allowed women to serve equally in the Airdefence after its conception in 1994. Women were allowed to become volunteer pilots and staff in the Tactical Air Forces in 2012. Women were allowed to volunteer for some arms of the Army in 1999, extending to military police in 2002. However, women were exempt from conscription and could not serve in combat arms until a 2017 referendum enacted universal conscription. The first batch of female conscripts were drafted in February 2018.

See also

  1. Gallan Parliament
  2. Maredoratic Strategic Studies Institute
  3. Estimates on Questarian Defence Spending, Morivaine Security Community presentation to the National Convention
  4. Maredoratic Strategic Studies Institute
  5. Maredoratic Strategic Studies Institute
  6. National Budget at a Glance 17-18, Trades Union Congress http://www.congress.kc/budget1718
  7. The Times, 31st April 2017
  8. Maredoratic Strategic Studies Institute
  9. International Military Observatory
  10. Maredoratic Institute for Peace
  11. Maredoratic Strategic Studies Institute
  12. National Convention of Morieux - Committee for War and Peace Report on Alisnan security