Galkayo

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Republic of Galkayo
  • Jamhuuriyadda Gaalkacyo  (Somali)
Flag of Galkayo Coat of Arms of Galkayo
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: "Midowga xaa xoog"
Somali: "Union is strength"
Anthem: Dalka Gacaliyayaalow
(English: Beloved Country)
Location of Galkayo in Alqosia
Location of Galkayo (green)
– in the Nioro Accord ( light green )
– in Alqosia ( grey )
CapitalIsraac
Largest City Abdalla
Official languages Somali
Recognised national languages Arabic, Italian, Kikuyu, Lingala
Ethnic groups (2016) 65% Galkayan
19% Ngoro
7% Nkulutu
6% Cadani
3% Alaqabayil
Demonym Galkayan
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 •  President Abu Bakr Jameel Agli
 •  Vice President Bruno Arnaldo Karim
 •  High Advocate Lesedi Uzoma
 •  Peer of the Commons Ndidi Fermi
Legislature National Assembly
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
Establishment
 •  Qorraxdadahabka Empire ca 700 
 •  United Kingdom of Galkayo 8 July 1741 
 •  Colonial era 4 February 1753 
 •  Independence 6 August 1919 
Area
 •  623,500 km2
240 sq mi
Population
 •  2015 estimate 68,134,988
 •  2010 census 68,100,788
 •  Density 109.2/km2
282/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $96.8 billion
 •  Per capita $1,422
Gini41.1
medium
HDI 0.560
medium
Currency Galkayan Lira (gl)
Time zone CAMT (UTC)+1:00
Drives on the right
Calling code +135
Internet TLD .gk

Galkayo, officially the Republic of Galkayo (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Gaalkacyo), is a country in Northern Alqosia bordered by the Alqosian Ocean to the north-east, Kirinyaga to the east, Cote d'Or to the south-east, Maalukhir to the south, and Soufia to the west. The capital is Abdalla and the largest city is Israac.

Galkayo unified for the first time in 700 as Qorraxdadahabka, which was formed by various Beekanu and Bantu tribes throughout the region, although the Beekanu factions of Qorraxdadahabka were more numerous. Qorraxdadahabka existed between the 8th century and the 13th century, after which existed a period of internal clashes between kingdoms and tribes that would only be resolved with the involvement of the Union of Borgosesia in the mid-19th century, which marks the beginning of the colonial era in Galkayo. Galkayo unified as the United Kingdom of Galkayo in 1741, a puppet government of Borgosesia, and later came under full control of Borgosesia in 1753. Nominal power shifted to the Moravian Empire in 1800 with the annexation of Borgosesia into Moravia, but de facto control remained at the hands of Borgosesians. Galkayo fought alongside the Coalition Powers during the Great Maredoratic War in Alqosia and Alisna, Galkayo declared independence during the concurrent Pollonan Revolution and Borgosesian War of Independence in 1919. The country's independence was recognized by the Republic of Pollona and Seso Republic shortly thereafter.

Following independence, Galkayo began to develop economically, although development was stifled by the Borgo-Galkayan War, which destroyed much of Galkayo's industrial capabilities established during the Great War. Galkayo developed slowly throughout the 20th century, although it has recently experienced an economic boom linked to the discovery of oil in the country's interior and several sites off the country's northern shore. Galkayo is characterized as a developing frontier market.

History

Etymology

The origin of the word Gaalkacyo derives from the ancient Beekanu language spoken in ancient Qorraxdadahabka. The original meaning has its root in the word Oromo, meaning 'Sons of men' or 'Sons of strangers,' depending on the prevailing dialect at the time. The word was used to refer to the people of Qorraxdadahabka, especially the Beekanu peoples along the northern coast. Although Beekanu was the primary language of the empire, by the 8th century CE there had been a paradigm shift in the learned class of Qorraxdadahabka, and the use of proto-Somali became the prevailing language of education and business. By the 12th century, Somali had solidified itself as the primary language of Qorraxdadahabka, and the first references to the word "Gaalkacyo" began to emerge in some literature. Linguists and historians are uncertain what link the Beekanu word "Oromo" and the Somali word "Gaalkacyo" share other than apparent meaning. The predominant theory is that the latter is simply a translation of the former that became more widespread as Somali became the dominant language of the region.

Pre-colonial history

The unification of Qorraxdadahabka in the 8th century centered along the northern coast of Galkayo began a gradual, centuries-long process of conquest with which virtually every Qorraxdadahabkan ruler took part. Although initially founded as a unification between the Beekanu and Bantu tribes of northern Qorraxdadahabka, the Beekanu peoples quickly began to outnumber the other tribes in terms of population, economic and military clout. Through military campaigns, the rest of what is now modern Galkayo was brought under Qorraxdadahabka. Under the empire, many of the native cultures of the northern interior of Alqosia were wiped out by the Beekanu leaders of Qorraxdadahabka, who over time developed into the Galkayan ethnic group. The descendant ethnic groups of Galkayo today are linked back to those who did not oppose or defy the expansion of Qorraxdadahabka centuries ago, although that metric did not prevent even some willing tribes from facing extermination at the hands of Qorraxdadahabka, which was motivated by economic reasons to wipe out competitors and also on religious grounds under traditional Beekanu religion. The arrival of Islam in the 11th century altered the form of governance significantly.

With the arrival of Islam, a cultural shift occured that all but toppled the ruling government from within, as converted Muslims sought to take power and spread Islam through the country. After the collapse of the previous power structure, the country began to operate under tribal monarchies in which the chieftain of a tribe, which consisted of 10-20 families, vied for political power withing a wider confederation of tribes. Religious authority and political authority became one in the same. This system, although equalizing for the various tribes of the region, was unstable and ultimately led to centuries of warfare between the various ethnic groups of Galkayo, often ending in the eradication of certain ethnic groups at the hands of others. By the 15th century, this practice had been eliminated by the re-inclusion of hereditary monarchies, which placed one family at the helm of power and the tribe at the organs of power in the state. By the 18th century, this system of governance had consolidated into the three kingdoms. Trade in the kingdoms was conducted on a system of roadways that roughly followed the borders of the three kingdoms, which branched out from then-major cities like Israac and Abdalla to as far as Mvele and Garsoor. In times of peace, these roads were bustling thoroughfares of transit and commerce, while in times of war they were the main avenues of militaries to invade rival kingdoms. From the 15th century to the 18th century, no kingdom was capable of completely seizing another, although territorial gains and losses were frequent.

The colonization of Galkayo first began with the primary contact between Borgosesian expeditionary forces and the Kingdom of Galkayo, which inhabited at that time the north-west of the country. Fifteen ships under the command of Fredo Borgogni, an admiral in the Royal Union Navy, made contact with the King of Galkayo, Oluwasegun, in 1735. Borgogni had brought with him already colonists and several platoons of infantry of the Royal Union Army, most of which hailed from the Fobesian Union. With him, additionally were colonists and criminals convicted of petty crimes who had been given a chance to have a fresh start in creating a Borgosesian Alqosia. The initial reaction of King Oluwasegun was skeptical, but gifts of gold and silver from the Borgosesian entourage improved relations between the two groups rapidly. Borgogni and his entire expedition, nearly one thousand men, were the first Alisnans the Galkayans had ever seen. Oluwasegun responded overall positively to the arrival of the Alisnans, granting land to the colonists to build upon which became Fort New Valsesia. The colonists operated under the assumption that Oluwasegun had agreed to grant the Borgosesians sovereignty over the land, while in the mind of Oluwasegun the granting of land was a transaction for further economic and military cooperation.

By 1740, a significant colony in the Kingdom of Galkayo had been established. News of involvement with Alisnans spread to the two other kingdoms of Galkayo, who resolved to capitalize on the interactions made with the Kingdom of Galkayo. In 1740, armies of both the Kingdom of Kenitrashka and the Kingdom of Koonfurta allied against the Kingdom of Galkayo and invaded the country seeking to capture Israac and conduct trading with the Borgosesians. Recognizing the position of the Kingdom of Galkayo, the Union of Borgosesia straightaway chose to aid the Kingdom of Galkayo in combat against the two opposing kingdoms, kicking off the First Galkayan Civil War. Military aid from Borgosesia was sent swiftly to the country, and the several regiments of soldiers that had been stationed in Galkayo at that time were sent to assist Galkayan troops in battling the Kenitrashkans and the Koonfurtans. The opposing kingdoms did not have access to firearms or artillery, giving the Borgosesians a distinct advantage over invading forces. The war lasted only into early 1741, when the Kingdom of Koonfurta and the Kingdom of Kenitrashka surrendered. The Treaty of Israac was signed in April of 1741, and it forced Kenitrashka and Koonfurta to cede lands to the then-established United Kingdom of Galkayo. It also obligated the United Kingdom of Galkayo to declare itself a military protectorate of the Union of Borgosesia, still retaining nominal independence and sovereignty. In 1753, however, Borgosesia forced the United Kingdom of Galkayo to join Borgosesia as an colony. With little ability to resist militarily and economically, Galkayo capitulated.

Colonial history

Under the rule of Borgosesia, Galkayo developed little as Borgosesia was embroiled with domestic struggles. Borgosesia was, however, able to maintain a grip on power in Galkayo due to the decentralization of power within the Borgosesian Empire. Galkayans were afforded many freedoms, including that of speech and religion, as long as it did not interfere with the interests of the Borgosesian crown. The decades of complete Borgosesian rule were, however, limited, as in 1800 as a result of the Borgosesian Revolution, Borgosesia was annexed by the Moravian Empire in a bid to preserve it from further violence. Under terms of the annexation, Borgosesia was allowed to continue its control of Galkayo, as Moravia had little interest in developing a new infrastructure for the management of an overseas colony when an already sufficient one was in place. Little changed for Galkayans other than matters of public policy and affairs. Economic development did, however, begin to ramp up as the economic and civil situation in Borgosesia stabilized, although Galkayo was used primarily through the 19th century as a resource hub, most of which were shipped back to Alisna or otherwise out of Alqosia. In the mid 19th century, administration of northern Galkayo was solidified under colonial control, although rule of the southern provinces was allocated to Borgosesian and Moravian companies, who were given free reign of rule in the interest of earning taxes on business operation on crown territory. The companies, referred to historically as River Companies for their operation on the various rivers of central Galkayo, were feared for their brutal tactics, many of which resulted into localized skirmishes and minor conflicts between tribes and company soldiers. The practice of subcontracting governance ended 1880.

In the decades leading up to the Great Maredoratic War, efforts were made to improve relations between the colonial government and the population, and likewise between the colonial government and Seso. By the time the war broke out, anti-government sentiments were lower than they had been, but rumblings of independence were becoming more common in the country. At the outbreak of the war, the pretext of protecting war morale was used to stifle talk of dissent. During the war, Galkayo contributed several thousand soldiers to fight against Maalukhir, which was associated with the League of Three Empires. Additionally, for the first time in history, Galkayan troops were shipped to Alisna to fight alongside Borgosesian units, although by the end of the war the units had been re-segregated due to disgust on the part of Borgosesian officers.

The Pollonan Revolution in 1919 and the concurrent Borgosesian Independence War led to the collapse of colonial power in Galkayo. The colonial government quickly shifted loyalties to Galkayo at the first signs of restlessness in the Galkayan population in the first days of the collapse of the Moravian Empire. In June of 1919, a constitutional convention formed in order to develop a strategy for declaring independence. Many ideals of Borgosesian republicanism were adopted by the government. Between June and August of 1919, limited conflicts between loyalists and republicans in Galkayo took place, although by and large the republicans in the country outweighed and outnumbered the loyalists. In August of 1919, Galkayo officially declared independence from Moravia, which was later recognized by the newly-formed countries of Pollona and the Seso Republic.

Geography

A satellite map of Galkayo
The territory of Galkayo includes the entirety of Galkayo's sovereign territory. The country is 623,500 square kilometers in size. The entirety of the coastline borders the Pearl Sea. Galkayo is divided into several distinct biomes, ranging from deserts to savannas to dense jungles and open farmland. The majority of the provinces of North Galkayo and Abdalla SAR are covered in jungle and grassland, which also forms the majority of the farmland of Galkayo.

South of the jungle and grassland of North Galkayo and Abdalla SAR is the Galkayan savannah beltwhich stretches across northern Kenitrashka and Koonfurta and extends into a significant portion of the former, but not the latter. The central and eastern portions of the Galkayan savannah belt are drier, flatter and have more trees and grassland than the western portion. The savannah dips south near the borders between Kenitrashka and Koonfurta. The southern portions of Kenitrashka and Koonfurta are primarily desert, which is itself an extension of the Al Haouz Desert in Soufia. . In both Kenitrashka and Koonfurta, but especially in Koonfurta, there are large natural valley clearings between sections of jungle that are highly fertile. These areas, as well as artificially deforested areas, provide a significant portion of Galkayo's farmland. There are also jungles in the southern reaches of Galkayo that extend into Maalukhir.

Climate

Due to the position to the Tropic of Cancer, the climate of Galkayo does not alter significantly throughout much of the country. The climate of Galkayo is generally hot and dry, with the exception of certain regions of the coast which experiences orographic rainfall. Summers in Galkayo are intensely hot while winters are mildly warm. The greatest range in climate in Galkayo exists in the southern regions of the nation where neighboring mountain ranges create rainfall similar to that found on the coast, which creates a regular rainy season in the early spring months which regularly floods regions of the country.

Politics and law

The Palace of the Government (Madaxtooyada ee Dowladda), located in southern Israac, is the seat of the National Assembly

Galkayo is a presidential federal constitutional republic where the President of Galkayo is both the head of state and the head of government. The executive is comprised of the presidency and the cabinet, which is appointed by the president and approved by the legislature.

The legislature takes the form of the National Assembly, which is bicameral. The upper house is the Senate and the lower house is the House of Representatives. The houses are chaired, respectively, by the High Advocate and the Peer of the Commons, whose ceremonial function is to serve as moderators while the National Assembly is in session, and serve as the representatives of both the legislature and the people to the president. Senators serve six year terms and representatives serve four year terms with limits of 12 years and 8 years, respectively. The legislative system works under a three party system, while various minor parties exist at the provincial level. The three major parties are the National Republican Party, which falls to the centre-right, the Social Progressive Party, which falls to the centre-left, and the Liberal Democratic Alliance, which falls in the radical center. Each of the four provinces has an elected Provincial Assembly that governs local affairs of the provinces. Members of the Provincial Assemblies are voted to serve two year terms, with a term limit of 6 years.
Administrative divisions of Galkayo
The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of the Republic and the People of Galkayo, which is the ultimate court of last resort . Fifteen jurists sit on the bench, which are appointed by the President and approved by the legislature. They serve life terms. The four provinces of Galkayo each have local municipal courts that handle all civil and criminal cases under a mixture of the civil law system and a common law system. Each of the four provinces has a Supreme Provincial Court that is the court of last resort before it reaches the Supreme Court of the Republic and the People of Galkayo.

Law enforcement responsibilities are largely carried out by the four provincial police forces. The National Investigative Service acts as the national criminal investigative force that has nation-wide jurisdiction. The NIS, organized under the Department of Justice, is one of several law enforcement agencies. Other law enforcement agencies include the National Border Patrol Service, the Corp of Coastal Police, and the National Resources Protection Service.

Administrative divisions

Galkayo is a federal republic composed of 4 provinces. Rights are imbued by the Constitution of Galkayo, and as such each province has a measure of autonomy. Each province sends a certain amount of representatives to the House of Representatives based on population, while each province sends 20 senators to the Senate. The administrative borders of Galkayo correspond roughly to the ethnic and political borders of Galkayo before unification. The administrative divisions were first established by Borgosesian colonials, who assumed at firsthand that the kingdoms were ethnically homogeneous prior to the arrival of Alisnans. This was not the case, however, and ethnic groups have only diversified in the decades following the independence of Galkayo. The colonial boundaries still exist, and the government has consistently tried to promote identification with one's province and nation rather than one's ethnic group with limited success. The four administrative divisions are North Galkayo, Kenitrashka, Koonfurta and the Abdalla Special Administrative Region. The Abdalla Special Administrative Region encloses the Greater Abdalla Metropolitan Area and the surrounding countryside. Abdalla is the most metropolitan city of Galkayo, home to every ethnic group of the country and several ethnic groups and nationalities from around the world.

Military

Galkayan Army troops in a convoy deploying to Kenitrashka as part of the Insurgency in Kenitrashka

The Armed Forces of Galkayo are made up by the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. There are roughly 100 thousand active service members across the four branches and around 230 thousand reservists. The commander in chief is the President of Galkayo, presently Abu Bakr Jameel Agli. The Armed Forces are managed by the Department of Defense, led by the Secretary of Defense, who is presently Oluwayemisi Uggeri.

The Army is the largest component of the Armed Forces, with roughly 90 thousand service members. The army is primarily comprised of infantry units supported by few armored fighting vehicles, artillery units, and support units. The service rifle of the Army is the Heckler & Koch G3. The Air Force is the second largest component of the Armed Forces, with roughly 5 thousand service members. The Air Force fields 250 air craft. Its primary fighter plane and attack plane is the Northrop F-5. The Air Force also possess several transport planes and helicopters, as well as training planes. Aside from support units, the Air Force has ground troops that operate anti-aircraft batteries, and have been known to bolster the Army in combat. The Navy is the third largest component of the Armed Forces, with roughly 3 thousand service members. A green water force, the Navy possesses 100 ships, mostly patrol boats and missile boats. The primary function of the Navy is to defend the territorial waters of Galkayo from foreign intrusion. It also assists the Corp of Coastal Police in maritime law enforcement and search and rescue. The Navy also operates several coastal warfare naval infantry units that differ from the Marine Corps in the fact that they're used primarily to operate shore batteries and support operations of the Army and Marines Corps inland. The Marine Corps is the smallest component of the Armed Forces, with only roughly 2 thousand service members. The Marine Corps is a naval infantry branch considered to be the most elite force of Galkayo. The Marine Corps works closely with the Navy in training and infrastructure. The Marine Corps also takes the function of a brown water navy, patrolling Galkayo's extensive networks of rivers.

The Armed Forces receive around 600 million dollars in funding, which is five percent of the national GDP. Military spending is elevated due to tensions along the Galkayan-Maalukhiri border, which is often the site of clashes between Maalukhiri warlords and government forces. The Armed Forces are not presently deployed abroad. A portion of the Army is deployed in Kenitrashka conducting counter-insurgency operations against the New Free State Army.

Economy

Farmers in Koonfurta
Although Galkayo has made significant strides in the development of its industrial sector and has a growing affluent urban minority, Galkayo is still a poor developing country. It has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.560. As of 2015, 10.1% of Galkayans lived on less than $1.50 a day. Large portions of the agricultural sector are underdeveloped and inefficient, with 30% of the population relying on subsistence farming. Galkayo is usually classified as a frontier market.

Major exports include minerals used in the manufacturing of computers, so the mining industry for various minerals, primarily aluminium, cobalt, and palladium. A growing manufacturing sector in populated cities has also driven recent economic growth.

In the past two decades, the service sector of the Galkayan economy has expanded steadily, partly due to the expansion of the tourism industry. Galkayo's services sector, which contributes 50% of GDP, is dominated primarily by tourism. The tourism sector has grown steadily over the past decade as properties in North Galkayo have developed into resorts and historical attractions. Private entities aided by the government emphasize the natural beauty of the northern coast to travelers from Alisna and Wilassia, and especially travelers from Jungastia.
The Serani resort in North Galkayo just west of Israac attracts wealthy tourists primarily from Alisna and Wilassia
Alqosian bush elephants are common in Galkayo's game reserves
Other than the coastal beaches of the north, travelers are attracted to several national parks and game reserves, the largest being Axmadeey-Dacar National Park in central Koonfurta, which is just over 20 thousand square kilometers alone. Game reserves are strictly for admiring natural beauty and preserving wildlife, and they are protected from poachers by the National Resources Protection Service.

Historical sites across Galkayo from the Qorraxdadahabka Empire and famous battle locations from the Borgo-Galkayan War are also popular in particular. Religious tourism and pilgrimage are also significant draws for tourists. The most popular religious site in the country is the Afariridookiibuuroumayo Mosque, which is the largest in the country. It attracts thousands of tourists every year. Tourism is growing rapidly as Galkayo's major earning sector. The development of the tourism industry has done much to develop related industries to accommodate increased international traffic, leading to development primarily in Galkayo's urban areas while also benefiting rural areas.

Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Galkayo's gross domestic product after the service sector. In 2010, including forestry and fishing, it account for 22 percent of GDP, as well as 20 percent of wage employment. The principal cash crops are tea, horticultural produce and coffee. The production of food staples like corn, wheat and soy beans also forms a major portion of the agricultural sector. The raising of livestock is most common in the north and center of the country, with some nomadic herding taking place in the desert regions of the south. Since 1995, Galkayo has achieved an economic level of guaranteed food security and the development of new roads and other infrastructure to once isolated regions has nearly eliminated chronic hunger.

Although Galkayo has made modest gains in industrial activity in the last two decades, manufacturing only accounts for 15 percent of the GDP. The largest industrial centers are based in Israac and Abdalla, which are also the most populated urban areas of the country. The fastest growing manufacturing fields in the country are grain milling, beer production and the fabrication of consumer goods like vehicles and other electronics. Galkayo has a fledgling oil refinery industry that processes crude oil extracted from recently constructed wells in the interior of the country. The largest share of Galkayo's electricity supply comes from coal plants throughout the country, supplied by coal mined in the mountains of southern Kenitrashka with the remaining supply being imported. The rest of energy needs are met by petroleum-fired plants on the coast. Almost all energy ventures are owned by Galkayan Natural Resources, a state-owned company which controls 95% of energy ventures, although recent privatization and foreign investment in new infrastructure is lessening the company's hold on power. Galkayo plans to develop a nuclear power plant by 2018.

Galkayo has recently discovered significant deposits of oil in central Kenitrashka. Early estimates by Galkayan Natural Resources suggests there are around 80 billion barrels, although the company is still searching to see if there are more reserves. Immediate development of oil wells in the area began in mid 2015.

Demographics

Languages

A breakdown of ethno-linguistic groups in Galkayo by language spoken. Note: Italian is a lingua franca of the country and understood by a majority of the population.
Arabic
     Alqabayil-algharbia
Bantu languages
     Ngoro (Kikuyu)
     Nkulutu (Lingala)
Italian
     Cadani
Somali
     Galkayan
Somali is the official language of Galkayo. Somali is spoken as a first language by a majority of the nation, and it's the most common language of the Galkayan ethnic group. Arabic, Bantu languages and Italian are spoken primarily by members of Galkayo's various ethnic groups.

Somali is the ancient language of Galkayo, which can directly trace its lineage to at least the 8th century. Somali is a Cushitic Afro-Asiatic language that has developed alongside other similar languages in Alqosia, such as Arabic. Recognizable links to modern Somali began to appear in written documentation of the Qorraxdadahabka Empire, which adopted the language and made it mandatory for its holdings. The language was heavily influenced by native languages and dialects, and as such modern Somali is highly dialectical. While linguists classify it as one language, when regional accents are taken into account it is sometimes difficult for a speaker of one dialect to understand another speaker due to pronunciation and varying vocabulary. Written Somali is generally understood by the entire populace, however, and the government utilizes Standard Somali, which is also the Somali that is usually taught worldwide.

Italian is still considered a common lingua franca. The Italian language was imposed on Galkayans during the colonial era. Between 1754 and 1919, all Galkayans were slowly required to speak Italian in public places as the primary language, while Somali was limited to use at home. This had a profound effect on the Italian language's influence on Galkayan culture. After the declaration of independence, Italian was briefly removed from the public schooling system, although it was reinstated in 1921 due to pressures from the general public in Israac. The Borgo-Galkayan War did not cause a discouragement of the use of Italian. Instead, it had the opposite effect. The government encouraged Italian and Somali speakers to unite against the fascist invasion under the slogan "Two languages, one Galkayo." The tactic was a success, and it led to the solidification of Italian as the lingua franca of Galkayo. Italian is also spoken primarily among the Cadani, an Italianization of the Somali word for caddaanka meaning "whites." The Cadani, historically also called 'Borgo-Galkayans,' are the ancestors of the original Borgosesian colonials who trace their heritage to the original Borgosesian settlers. Most of the Cadani live in pocketed communities across the country, with the most associated around north-eastern North Galkayo in the territories once controlled by the Galkayan Free State.

The two primary Bantu languages of Galkayo are Kikuyu, spoken by the Ngoro ethnic group of south-western Kenitrashka, and Lingala, spoken by the Nkulutu ethnic group of southern Kenitrashka and Koonfurta. Although linguistically similar, the Ngoro and Nkulutu have distinct cultural differences. The Ngoro are predominantly Muslims while the Nkulutu are primarily Catholics, for example. Arabic is spoken by just 5 percent of the population, most of which belong to the Alqabayil-algharbia ethnic group. The majority of the Alqabayil-algharbia are Sunni Muslims and live in regions along the border with Soufia.

Religion

Galkayo religiosity
religion percent
Ibadism
  
60.8%
Sévéracois Catholics
  
30.4%
Sunni Islam
  
5%
Others
  
3.8%

Islam is the dominant religion of Galkayo. Founded roughly 20 years after the death of the Prophet Mazhar, Islam found its way to what was then pre-Qorraxdadahabka Galkayo. Galkayo at the time practiced various animistic religions. Early Muslims in Galkayo followed the teachings of the Prophet Ibado, who taught that strict obedience to sharia and religious tolerance were the proper way to live a just life in the eyes of Allah. The religion remained a minority into the establishment of the Qorraxdadahabka Empire. It wouldn't earn prominence until the 11th century when it was adopted as the official religion.

Religious violence between Ibadis and Sunnis intensified in the 13th century after the collapse of the Qorraxdadahabka Empire, which was also agitated by ethnic violence. Kenitraskans were overwhelmingly Sunni, while Galkayans were overwhelming Ibadi. By the 16th century, the Ibadi had all but destroyed the Sunni in Galkayo, until peace was made by the two kingdoms. This peace would collapse in the early 18th century, which also marked the arrival of Borgosesian colonials. Into the colonial era and the modern era, Ibadi Islam grew to be the dominant expression of the religion. Although generally tolerant of other religious beliefs, Ibadism is highly puritanical. All Ibadi women are required to wear headscarves in public, and the strictest communities require women to be accompanied by a man while in public, although this practice has waned in recent times. Strict regulations on food are kept by most establishments in Galkayo.

Catholicism is the second-largest religion in Galkayo. Brought by Borgosesian colonials, Catholicism was initially taught primarily in the northern reaches of Galkayo. Missionaries attempting to bring it to southern Galkayo received generally negative reactions, although it was adopted by Koonfurtans in the country's south-east. Today, a majority of Christians live in Koonfurta.

Freedom of religion is a right guaranteed by the Constitution of Galkayo. All citizens have the right to free worship without fear of violence or persecution. Despite the relative religiosity of Galkayan society, secularism is growing across the country, especially in urban centers. Strict adherence to religion is waning, with only 60 percent of the country claiming to regularly attend religious services, a 30 percent drop from just 2000. Sociologists attribute the influx of Alisnan media to Galkayo in the last 15 years, especially from Borgosesia and Berry, as one of the factors for the drop in religiosity.

Education

Education in Galkayo is administered from the federal level and regulated by the Department of Education. Education in Galkayo is free and compulsory for all persons between the ages of 6 and 18. Galkayo operated under a 5-4-4-4 system, with five years of primary school education, four years of secondary education, four years of high school or vocational school, and an optional four years of university. Out of all students in Galkayo, about 80 percent attend primary school, 75 percent attend secondary school, 60 percent attend high school or vocational school, and 30 percent attend university. The primary goal of the Department of Education is to increase the rate at which students attend school. Primary, secondary and vocational schools are divided into two categories: Public and private. Public schools are regulated directly by the Department of Education, while private schools are usually associated with a religious organization. Private schools must adhere to all regulations required of public schools, with the primary difference being the allowance of religious classes in the curriculum, as well as classes in addition to the federally established curriculum.

There are ten public universities and five private universities in Galkayo, with the largest being the University of Israac and the University of Abdalla.