|Principality of Galla
Furstendoemet Gallia (gal)
|Motto: Staten och folket, tillsammans
"The State and Nation, together"
|Recognised regional languages||Varnian - Dansk - English - Sondsteadish - Pradarian - French - Lombard - Picard - Breton - Occitan - Ligurian - Piedmontese - Romansh - Walloon|
|Ethnic groups (2012)||87.4% Gallan|
|Government||Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy|
|•||Prime Minister||Kjell Vikernes|
|•||as Principality of Galla||March 3rd, 1488|
172,035 sq mi
|•||2015 estimate census||65,355,232|
Error: Invalid HDI value
|Drives on the||right|
Galla (Gallan: Gallia), officially the Principality of Galla (Gallan: Furstendoemet Gallia), is a small, relatively wealthy, democratic, Nordic state located in Maredoratica. It is located near the continent of Alisna, south of Berry and east of the Malouine Islands, on the border of the Western and Eastern Maredoratic Seas. A constitutional monarchy, Galla's capital is located in Kiruna. Like Karaman, Gallia is relatively flat compared to the rest of the continent, and is noted for its numerous and lengthy rivers. Its population of approximately 65 million makes it the 12th largest country in Maredoratica and 3rd largest in Alisna, and its area of 445,500 km2 makes it the 6th largest state in Alisna by total area.
The earliest settlement of the Gallan islands by hominids dates to 40-60,000 years ago, in line with the settlement of the rest of Alisna. The earliest dated fossil records of modern habitation are around 1500 BCE, with most ruins being contemporary with Celtic development of the era. The vast majority of these ruins are located on the eastern half of the island, and is indicative of the limit of expanse of early Alisnan protocultures. Many of these archaeological ruins are considered by Galla to be national icons, and designated as protected cultural property by the Maredoratic Organisation for Culture, Education, and Science.
Prior to the 5th century AD, the island which is now Galla was settled by a large number of Nordics, who also colonised the northern shores of what is now Questers. Primarily originating from Sondstead and Varnia, the Nordic settlers found a relatively small population of natives, consisting of mostly Christian and Pagan communities which had migrated from the continent. Several centuries of minor conflict between the Nordic settlers and natives resulted in the assimilation of most of the indigenous population under Norse-ruled petty kingdoms by the 7th century AD.
At the beginning of the 10th century AD, the many petty monarchies of Galla had consolidated into three independent states: the Duchy of Jorvik, the Principality of Genevad, and the Duchy of Ostron. For the next two centuries, Genevad slowly expanded to cover the entire island, uniting it under the Principality of Kiruna in 1482 and the Principality of Gallia in 1488. Throughout the 16th century, Gallia expanded its power overseas, culminating in conflicts with Questers, Van Luxemburg, Sondstead, Varnia, and Morieux in various wars until the early 19th century.
Historically, Galla's geography has afforded it significant protection from the various wars of the Alisnan continent, the Gallo-Berrian Channel forming a natural barrier to invasion, and its position between the Western and Eastern Maredoratic Seas has made it an important hub for trans-continental travel and trade. As a maritime nation, Galla has always had a significant shipbuilding capacity, which has expanded in the modern era to include oil tankers and bulk carriers.
With a GNP of $2 trillion, Galla is the 8th largest economy in Maredoratica, with the 16th highest GNPPC, and is considered a developed country. Galla's HDI (Human Development Index) score of 0.859 is considered Very High, and slightly higher than the Alisnan and regional average. Gallans enjoy a high life expectancy, household income, and general standard of living. Income inequality is low, with a Gini coefficient of 30.2, one of the lowest in Alisna. Galla is a member of the Group of Ten (G10), the G20 economic group, and an early (founding?) member of the Maredoratic League. It is a signatory of Maredoratic Treaty Against Proliferation of Nuclear Armaments (TAPNA).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
The word Gallia ultimately comes from the Latin term Galli from Galatia (the land of the Galli), originally used to describe the land of the continental peoples who inhabited modern-day Berry. The Celtics, like Norsemen centuries later, were apparently known amongst the natives for their sea-faring nature and raiding of cities along the shores of southern Alisna during the Iron Age. Varying etymologies of the word "Galli" abound, but there is insufficient evidence for any one conclusion to be drawn.
Regardless of the origin, the term evolved through the centuries from "Celt" to mean "foreigner", "outsider", or "invader", and was applied loosely by the natives of modern Galla to the Norse raiders of the Viking Age in the same manner as the ancient Celtic raiders. This may have caused some initial consternation or confusion among the Norsemen, as the word Galli in Old Varnian means "fault" or "flawed", while in the Dansk language it would have referred to a garment for working, in the generic sense.
Eventually, the Norse settlers adopted the term when referring to themselves to distinguish their heritage from the native Galatians. By the 9th century AD, the word Gallian had begun to be used to describe descendants of these settlers, in a loose sense similar to how "Nordic" might be applied to the modern-day Sondsteadish, Varnians, Dansk, and Questerians, and the word Gallia (literally meaning "land of foreigners") was used to refer to the island itself. When Galla was unified in the 15th century, Gallia was adopted by the Principality of Kiruna, abandoning the previous tradition of naming states after their capital or founding cities, and asserting a sense of legitimacy for the new government.
Main Article: Geography of Galla
Galla occupies the 41° N 35° N latitude band, off the southern coast of Alisna, and lies within the temperate climate zone. An island nation, Galla shares no land borders with other states, but has maritime borders with Berry and Yohannes. With an area of 445,570 km2 across the entire archipelago, Galla is the sixth largest state in Alisna, and like Karaman it is relatively flat, with the highest peak being Eriksberg at 1,824 meters.geographical zones: the flat coastal region lying along the southern, eastern, and northern coasts, the southern lowlands, and relatively rugged and mountainous uplands. The central band of the island is separated by the Jorvik Mountains, which reach their highest peaks near Kiruna. From these mountains flow many of the rivers and estuaries of the island, which empty into the Maredoratic Sea. The uplands are the most forested areas in Galla, accounting for most of the timber, and approximately 45% of these forests are protected against logging via crown ownership. The lake [[Kiruna (lake}|Kiruna]] is the only large, naturally occurring source of freshwater in Galla, and is replenished during the spring and summer by snow melt from the Jorvik mountains.
The lowlands of Galla consist primarily of irrigated wetlands, rolling hills, and occasional moorland. The majority of the population reside in the lowlands, and slightly more than half of the island consists of the smooth, gentle landscapes typical of such areas. Much of Galla's annual rainfall falls on the southern and northern lowlands, providing ample space and water for agriculture. As a result of the Jorvik range separating the island, the northern lowlands are typically colder and drier than the south but especially in the northwest, effectively separating the island into warm- and hot-Mediterranean climates along the north and south respectively (Köppen climate classification: Csb and Csa).
Coastal regions in Galla are typically arid and dry, with sand dunes dominating the southern band and gradually giving way to irrigated and fertile lowlands. Beaches in Galla are common tourist destinations, and many larger coastal cities such as Kivik and Hyssna are often sunny and warm year-round.
Many of Galla's forests are deciduous and shed their leaves in accordance with temperature in the uplands, and rainfall in the lowlands and coastal plains. The forests consist mostly of broadleaf species such as teak, oak, and birch which have historically been used by Gallan shipbuilders and carpenters for centuries.
Main Article: Climate of Galla
Occupying similar longitudinal bands as neighbouring Berry, Galla has a slightly balmier clime, with the annual high approaching 28°C and the annual low being slightly under 10°C. This places it in the lower band of the Hot-Summer Mediterranean climate enjoyed by southern Pollona, Berry, and Karaman, although near the Jorvik range, this rapidly becomes a much colder, alpine climate due to the elevation above sea level, resembling the maritime climate of Questers near Kiruna. Thus, the hot summers are principally oriented towards the coastal areas, while cities such as Kiruna may dip below freezing and experience snow in the wintertime.
Within the interior of Gallia, and especially the uplands, a much more moderate environment can be found, with the average temperature range of the uplands being between 20°C and -2°C. While snow is relatively rare, with cold rain or mist being more common, it does occur, and the highest peaks of the Jorvik mountains have permanent snow formations, making them popular skiing destinations. The alpine regions are also visited by hikers, climbers, and hunters.
Main Article: Administrative Divisions of Galla
Galla is divided into 22 provinces (Gallske lan): Kiruna, Osterland, Bergen, Roke, Ostron, Jorvik, Sodermanland, Kebal, Klockrike, Sya, Ostvik, Sibo, Sibble, Hjorted, Vasterbotten, Halsingland, Karlsberg, Hjaltevad, Tuna, Dalby, Brunn, and Lunde.
These provinces are further divided into 184 counties/states (stat) and 1,892 municipalities (kommun). Each municipality is governed by a local board (Kommunstyrelse) which is elected by the inhabitants of the town, and oversees affairs such as the funding of utilities, fire and police departments staffing, rubbish disposal, local transportation networks, etc. Counties are the next level of government and often comprise multiple municipalities (or a single municipality for larger cities), and are responsible for judicial functions of the state, inter-municipal commerce, public transportation, roads management, disbursement of schools funding, appointment of county administrators, and promoting local culture. In some provinces, municipalities have the ability to levy tax over the population, and
Provinces are the final level of "local" governance, and have the most autonomy amongst the three levels. They are responsible for the management of broad areas of governance, such as the planning of the provincial transportation network, which is facilitated by the counties. Provinces have the authority to levy tax over counties, create counties and municipalities, plan for and fund high schools and universities, legislation regarding intra-provincial commerce and trade, telecommunications infrastructure, and healthcare infrastructure planning.
Railroad transportation, uniquely, falls under the jurisdiction of the national government, along with management of foreign affairs, taxation of the state's population, oversight of the provinces, and administrative judicial functions.
Both municipalities and counties have elected boards for terms of six years, while provinces have executive boards which are elected for five. Only provinces have a legislature, which is elected every six years, with the number of legislators being determined by the most recent census population of the province.
Main Article: Politics of Galla
Galla is a unitary, parliamentary, constitutional monarchy. Princess Karoline II is the current reigning monarch after the abdication of Prince Joachim IV in 2013, and serves as head of state and representative figurehead of the government. The monarch holds certain reserve powers over government: the power to summon and dissolve Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister, to call for elections in accordance with the constitution at the request of the Prime Minister, the power to grant general pardons for criminal offenses, to grant ceremonial honours, and to command the armed forces. The most notable roles that the monarch has are opening the annual session of Parliament and representing the state at social functions.
The Parlamentet is the parliament of Galla. A bicameral legislature it consists of the Storting and Folkting, the latter of which are elected by the people every four years. The Folkting is elected via party-list proportional representation and consists of 358 members of parliament. In the event that Parliament is dissolved, the Folkting holds a snap election which does not interfere with the normal period between elections. The Folkting are the only officials elected by the public, and in turn they elect the Prime Minister and his cabinet to form government.
The Storting is the upper house of the legislature, consisting of both hereditary positions of nobility and appointed individuals from the 22 provinces of Galla. The legislative function of the Storting is subordinate to the Folkting, primarily consisting of final review of laws prior to receiving Royal Asset. Additionally, the Storting can veto any laws proposed by the Folkting with a majority vote, although this may be overridden by a 50%+1 majority of all members of the Folkting, it may propose legislation excepting bills relating to supply, and serves as the court of last resort.
Main Article: Judicial System of Galla
Typical court cases in Galla are held before a mixed tribunal of career judges and lay judges, with legal counsel to plead the case for both the accused and the victim, while criminal courts may have a jury chosen from the same list as lay judges. This is a modified form of the Questerian adversarial system, and incorporates many facets of it, such as cross-examination of defendants and witnesses, the right to silence, and judicial discretion. The purpose of the tribunal is to establish itself as an impartial representative of the state, the counsels providing evidence for or against the accused to the lay judges who act as jury, and the ultimate question of guilt being decided by the judge. Plea bargaining is effectively non-existent, as even a confession by the defendant cannot be considered more than a single piece of evidence to be deliberated by the tribunal, and is prohibited by law regardless.
Based on Questerian jurisprudence, courts in Galla consist of District Court (Tingsratt), serving as the lowest court for criminal offences and civil cases and court of first instance. The next highest court is the Royal Court (Hovratt), analogous to a County Court or Crown Court in Questers, serving as a court of appeals for the magistrates' court and court of second instance. There are 22 Royal Courts in Galla, each with jurisdiction over their province, and nominally the highest court for civil law. The second senior most court is the Court of Appeals, which presides over high profile cases of criminal matters. Inter-provincial civil law cases go before the High Court (Hogratt). The highest court and court of last resort in Galla is the Storting, which presides over cases of exceptional importance.
Main Article: Gallan Law
The Gallan legal system is based on common law, similar to Questers, although it incorporates some elements of civil law found in Varnia, such as career judges and lack of jury. Statutes are often broadly worded and left open to interpretation by judges, establishing a strong tradition of judicial precedent and case law. The Gallan Constitution ensures principles of rule of law, and divides the areas of law into three separate realms: civil law, criminal law, and constitutional law. Civil law is primarily concerned with torts and contract law, as well as other non-criminal actions. Criminal law concerns crimes property, justice, person, etc. Constitutional law concerns the law of the state and its powers delegated to the subordinates, such as provinces and municipalities.
Criminal law in Galla holds that ex post facto laws are unconstitutional are prohibited, however this does not apply to civil law.
Religious law in Galla is not recognised as legitimate, and most forms of religious law such as Sharia are explicitly banned. Since 1488, Galla has not had blasphemy or sodomy laws, although such actions have been repressed by various ordinances aimed at protecting "public morality" or curbing "obscenity". In 2002, Galla banned the wearing of overt religious symbols in public and in 2005, the wearing of Islamic facial coverings in public was banned. These laws extend to other forms of facial covering, such as balaclavas, and have been criticised as being Islamophobic.
Law enforcement in Galla is performed by the National Police Service (Statspolisbyran; SP) within metropolitan areas, and the National Gendarmerie (Statsgendarmeriebyran; SG) in rural areas and along highways. Railway Police (Jarnvagspolisbyran; JP) are a special branch of the Royal Railway Board (Kungliga Jarnvagsstyrelsen; KJ) responsible for protection and policing of trains and depots. Unlike the SP and SG, Railway Police are not authorised to carry firearms or detain individuals, but merely prevent trespassing and arrest thieves or vagabonds. Counter-espionage is the purview of the Security Board (Sakerhetsstyrelsen; SS), which also provides security to foreign dignitaries and the monarch.
The correctional system (Kriminalvarden; KV) in Galla is modeled after those Varnia and Sondstead, focusing principally on rehabilitation and training of the convicted rather than punishment, having undergone numerous incremental changes since the 1700s. The recidivism rate of criminals in Galla was approximately 42% in 2006.
The Gallan Armed Forces (Gallan: Forvarsmakten) is the military of Galla and consist of the Royal Army (Armen; KA) and Royal Navy (Marinen; KM). The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is Karoline II, although the Defence Act of 1854 dictates that the Prime Minister has de facto "executive control" over the military, shifting the monarch's role to a ceremonial position. The professional head of the Gallan military is the Chief of Staff of the Army/Navy Board, currently General Jan Forsberg, KSO, who advises the civilian government on military matters. Both the Army Chief of Staff and Fleet Chief of Staff serve on the Army/Navy Board and advise the Joint Board Chief on the latest matters of the armed forces.
The Ministry of War (Gallan: Krigsministeriet) is the civil organ which controls the armed forces, and the means by which the military and civilian government communicate. The war minister is a member of the cabinet who reports to the Prime Minister with information provided by the Army/Navy Board. The incumbent war minister is Lars Lagerfeld, who assumed the position in 2013.
The Office for Special Collection (Gallan: Sarskild inhamtning kontoret; SIK) is the foreign intelligence arm of the Gallan military and primarily responsible for HUMINT collection. Other intelligence units which fall under the control of the military include Sektion Q (responsible for SIGINT/COMINT) and the Intelligence Office (Underrattelsekontoret; UK) which is responsible for tactically relevant intelligence such as equipment analysis. The intelligence arm also includes agencies for MASINT (Measures and Signature Intelligence) and IMINT (Imaging Intelligence).
Research and development for the Gallan military is the responsibility of the separate branches, both of which which have established bureaus (byra) and research institutes (institut) for developing weapons systems such as tanks and warships. The largest of these bureaus are the Marinensflygtekniskaforskningbyra (Navy Aeronautical Research Bureau; MFB), Marinensammunitionbyra (Ordnance Bureau; MAB), Marinenspersonalbyra (Bureau of Naval Personnel; MPB), and Marinensangaingenjorsvetenskapbyra (Bureau of Steam Engineering; MIB).
As of 2012, the Gallan Armed Forces number a total of approximately 1,273,000 men, the majority of these belonging to the Army. Approximately 1,000,000 of these are part time reservists, and the rest active duty personnel. The Gallan military has universal conscription, and since 1988 has required women to serve in some capacity in the armed forces. Typical conscription periods are for four or six year terms, depending on the occupation and training needed, and conscripts are required to train twice annually with their unit. The Army makes the most use of conscripts, and the Royal Navy is principally a professional force of active duty sailors and pilots.
Due to its status as a signatory of TAPNA, the Gallan military has no nuclear weapons, having canceled its nuclear weapons program in the early 1961 in accordance with the treaty. It maintains a large stockpile of chemical weapons, including sarin, VX, CS gas, and BZ. It has numerous delivery systems for these weapons, including battlefield rockets, glide bombs, artillery shells, and grenades.
Galla has a robust military industry, with large shipbuilding and aerospace industries. Its industry has produced military equipment such as the Eagle fighter, Narke supercarriers, Fox class submarine, the Carl Gustav recoilless rifle, and Strv 151 tank, among others. Some Gallan products, such as the RBS 56 BILL and Carl Gustav 84mm rocket launcher have enjoyed significant success in export markets. Galla exports a majority of its military equipment, except for certain electronics and radars.
The Gallan military budget in 2014 was 9% of the national revenue, or ~4.6% of the GNP, amounting to a total of $95bn. The majority of this funding is consumed by the Royal Navy, which accounts for nearly 75% of expenditures, including its operations and maintenance, procurement, research, and miscellaneous costs. The Army consumes 20% of the budget, and the remainder is used by the intelligence services and unlisted items.
In response to the ongoing recession of 2014, the Gallan Parliament approved a budget increase for the military, approximating 4.9%, and accelerated production of several new weapons such as the Stridsvagn 141 main battle tank and Wolf-class attack submarine.
Main Article: Economy of Galla
Galla possesses a strong post-industrial economy, based around the Nordic model incorporating both free market capitalism and a welfare state. The tertiary sector makes up the largest sector of the economy, accounting for approximately 71% of the GDP. Its economy is the 3rd largest in Alisna, behind Berry, and Questers, and the GDPPC of Galla is the 6th highest in the continent behind Jumièges, Pollona, Berry, Sondstead, and Styria. Income inequality is below the regional average according to the Gini coefficient, and below the average of Alisna, but behind Generalist states such as Questers and Rochehaut. The currency is the Thaler, which is issued by the Riksbank, the national bank and demier resort.
The Gallan economy is notable for its large, by Alisnan standards, industrial sector and shipbuilding industry, accounting for over a quarter of the GDP, about 28%. Agriculture accounts for about 1% of the GDP. Structurally, the economy is based around a large service sector, and a moderate sized manufacturing sector based around high tech products such as telecommunications, aircraft, pharmaceuticals, and electronics.
Much of Galla's heavy industry is state-owned industry, although privatisation occurred on a limited scale with certain industries such as shipbuilding in the 1980s, the state still retains ownership over certain factories and production facilities, most notably His/Her Majesty's Admiralty Yard in Karlskrona, but also smaller facilities across the country.
According to Maredoratic Trade Organisation (MTO), in 2010 Galla was the seventh largest exporter and ninth largest importer of manufactured goods in the region, and fourth largest importer of raw materials.
Main Article: Energy in Galla
Much of Galla's energy production is from nuclear power, with approximately 78% of the country's energy derived from atomic fission. As a net electricity producer, Galla is one of Maredoratica's largest electricity exporters. In 2014, it produced approximately 592 TW/h, exported 80 TW/h, or about 13.5%, and Galla's average consumption of electricity per capita was 9,172 kWh/capita, slightly higher than the regional average (9,164 kWh/capita). Among the developed economies of Alisna, Galla is the smallest emitter of greenhouse gases and has the lowest carbon footprint, per capita.
Because of the large state investment in nuclear energy, renewables have seen comparatively little development in Galla. Aside from nuclear power, hydroelectric power constitutes about 18% of Gallan power production. Natural gas and other fossil fuels constitute 3.6%, and the remaining 0.4% from solar, wind, and other renewable energy types. In 2012 the Gallan government signed a "fossil fuel phase out" initiative into law, stipulating that fossil fuel electricity production in Galla will end before 2040. Increases in both renewable energy generation capacity and consumption efficiency are being considered.
Although it produces some offshore oil and natural gas, Galla imports over four fifths of its natural gas and petroleum stocks annually. Domestic oil production is typically of the inferior heavy crude variety, ill-suited to refining into fuel because of its high sulfur content, and is often used for industrial purposes such as lubricant instead. Gallan petroleum refineries source the vast majority of their crude oil from Varnia (54.8%) and Sondstead (22.2%). In 2012, Gallan oil consumption was approximately 2.1 million bbl/day.
Main Article: Transport in Galla
Galla's rail transport network, stretching 44,800 km, is the second largest in Alisna after Berry. The rail network is operated by the Royal Railway Board (Kungliga Jarnvagsstyrelsen; KJ), which is responsible for maintenance, construction, and planning of all rail infrastructure in the country. Unlike some state-owned railway systems, Galla does not operate with a state monopoly, and several national and regional passenger and freight companies operate alongside state-owned companies. All companies operating on Gallan railways must pay usage fees to KJ, and this funding is used to maintain the rail system. Unlike other Alisnan states, the vast majority of Gallan municipal and subterranean rail is fully automated.
The track gauge used in Galla is the 1,500 mm "meter half" Gallan standard gauge, which differs slightly from the Standard gauge of the continent. In 2012, Galla's refusal to adopt the Standard gauge was criticized by the media, which noted that the projected costs of the Gallo-Berrian Strait Tunnel had risen 22% due to the requirements of adapting Berrian standard gauge track to Gallan broad gauge.
There are 697,000 km of paved roads in Galla, making it one of the most densely trafficked countries in Maredoratica and Alisna. Gallan highways cover much of the coast and connect the largest cities of the interior. Gallan automobiles require registration upon purchase and an annual tax, the fee calculated based on engine displacement, carbon emission, and vehicle age, with a preference towards newer, smaller vehicles. There were approximately 30 million privately owned automobiles in Galla in 2013.
Galla has 392 airports, the largest and busiest being the Kiruna International Airport, which connects Galla to much of mainland Alisna and the rest of the region. The flag carrier is Galair, which operates in all major cities and airports, along with numerous privately owned international and regional airlines. The largest port in Galla is located in Karlskrona, which handles about a fifth of the annual sea freight imports and exports in the country; and the Gallo-Berrian Strait, and Galla itself, sees some of the busiest merchant traffic in the region.
Main Article: Manufacturing in Galla
Although Galla possesses large amounts of arable farmland, compared to the rest of Alisna the country was not particularly blessed with large quantities of certain natural resources, and the bulk of Gallan imports constitute feedstock including ingots and fossil fuels for its manufacturing industry. Since the 18th century and the start of the industrial revolution, it has maintained significant trade links with Sondstead, Questers, Varnia, Berry, other Alisnan states, Morieux, and Van Luxemburg, as well as others.
Until the 1900s, Galla was also a net exporter of food, but despite improved crop growing methods and industrialized agriculture, population growth has outstripped Galla's agricultural ability. While there are only about 800,000 farms in Galla, constituting ~1% of the GDP, they can meet about 80% of Galla's domestic needs. The primary agricultural products of Galla include rye, potatoes, cucumbers, and wheat. Galla imports most of its beef, horse, and poultry. Natural meat products of Galla are traditionally venison, rabbit, quail, duck, lamb, and pork, all of which Galla meets its domestic consumption needs.
As a maritime nation, fishing and aquaculture form a substantial portion of the agricultural sector and constitutes the bulk of Gallan food imports. Galla has established captivity farming of both salmon and yellowfin tuna, the latter only as a result of several decades of state research, reducing its wild fishing needs significantly but not substantially. The country is also one of the largest consumers of herring in Maredoratica.
Main Article: Demographics of Galla
The estimated population of Galla is approximately 64.5 million as of 2010. Between 2000 and 2010, the average annual population growth was slightly positive, about 0.21% per year, according to the National Census Bureau, and the total fertility rate was 1.87. The population density is 432/mi2 (167/km2), slightly higher than the Alisnan average of 350/mi2 (135/km2). The majority of Galla's population lives near coastal areas, with slightly over half residing within 100 km of the shoreline.
Galla's population growth has stagnated in recent decades due to a declining fertility rate, which is slightly below replacement rate, with annual growth hovering around 0.15-0.25%/year since the late 1980s. The majority of this growth has risen mostly due to immigration, especially in the early 2000s. However, as most of these immigrants tend to be from similarly developed countries to Galla, this shared fertility rate has likely been a primary factor in the population growth rate's stagnation.
As of 2010, approximately 86.6% of Gallans have at least one native parent, 11.4% have parents native from an Alisnan state, and 2% trace ancestry from continents other than Alisna. Statistics gathered by the Census Bureau include ethnicity, country of origin, immigrant generation (first, second, native). According to the Census Bureau, 13.4% of native Gallans are considered to be of foreign background, defined as being born abroad or being born in Galla to parents born abroad.
Main Article: Gallan language
The official language of Galla is Gallan, a North Alisnan language related to Dansk and Varnian, differing principally in orthography. The languages are partially mutually intelligible, mainly in spoken form, although both Varnian and Dansk speakers have greater difficulty understanding Gallans than each other, while Gallans have the most difficulty in understanding Dansk speakers. Galla, due to its location close to the Romance Alisnan states, has had a definite shift in form from other North Alisnan languages. This includes both pronunciation and alphabet, going so far as to use the traditional 26-character Latin alphabet instead of the more common 29-letter Varnian alphabet.
Recognised languages in Galla include Varnian, English, Sondsteadish, Dansk, and French, in descending order of speakers. The majority of these languages are confined to single urban or rural communities, for example the largest population (~60%) of Questerian expatriates reside in Hammarsborg in northern Galla. Recognised languages are languages which the Gallan government recognises as having a "profound effect on the development of the state", and thus represents an obligation to preserve these languages wherever they reside. Recognised minority languages, considered a different and lesser category of recognition, include Picard, Norn, and Gallo.
National law requires that most forms, public information, and roadsigns be printed or provided in three major languages, the most common being Gallan, Varnian, and English, as these are the largest; although the actual languages are left unspecified, and typically information such as forms or pamphlets are also provided in French.
All Gallan students are required to study at least one minority language and one foreign language during primary and secondary schooling, the latter typically being German or French. Occasionally, students will study one other language during schooling.
For post-secondary students, especially those studying the sciences, French is a compulsory subject, and approximately 84% of Gallans reported fluency in the language in 2010. Fluency in French is assisted by the saturation of Morivaine culture and media in Galla, and Gallan film distributors' preference for subtitling as opposed to dubbing foreign language films. About 73% of Gallans reported being "fluent" or "near fluent" in one other language, the most common being French (48%) and the least common being Dansk (2%). The minority language with the fewest native speakers is Breton, numbering ~130,000 according to the 2010 census, although the number of second/third-language speakers is around 3.2 million.
Main Article: Religion in Galla
Galla is a secular state, the state being legally separated from the Church of Galla in the 16th century, although religious influence was predominant until the 19th century. Gallan attitude towards religion is similar to the policy of lacite in other states, with a stricter separation of religious belief than most neighbouring Alisnan countries, including bans on public displays of "religious artefacts". Notable exemptions include "secularised artefacts" such as Christmas trees and the Occitan Cross.
Unlike states such as Borgosesia and Pollona, the Gallan state is not traditionally Catholic. Although Christianization occurred, principally in reaction to the spread of Islam in Karaman in the 5th and 6th centuries CE, it rapidly evolved and eventually separated from the Valesian Catholic Church in the 12th century, adopting a radical form of Christianity called Catharism. The Galatian Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, similar to the Sondsteadish Crusade a century before, achieved a greater level of success than its predecessor, establishing a small foothold in the northern region of modern Galla.
Eventually the Catholic invasion was stymied for nearly eighty years at the Battle of Hammarsborg in 1398. The second crusade was likewise a failure when many of the Catholic ships were destroyed by a combination of the large naval forces of the Galatians, and a large hurricane, which destroyed many ships on both sides, but gutted the weakened Catholic fleets. This outcome asserted the legitimacy of the Cathar Church, which claimed that the storm was divine intervention and evidence of God's favouring of Catharism.
The crusades were a major contributing factor in the future unity of the Gallan state, which occurred several years after the battle in 1488. Despite two failed invasions of the island by Catholic armies, the Gallan state never banned Catholicism explicitly, and the Cathar Church never declared similar edicts. During the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, much of Galla's extant Catholic population found shelter from the violence of the continent, and refugees from the Moravian Empire were welcomed. During this period, the population of Valesians greatly expanded, tripling in size by 1492.
As a result of the increased population of Catholics and political unrest resulting from religious disagreements, the Church of Galla was formally separated from the state in 1504, although it continued to exercise some control over the estates for centuries afterwards.
Throughout this period to the late 19th century, the Cathar Church suppressed the Jewish religion, establishing an Inquisition for investigation and punishment of Jewish worship. With the dis-establishment of the inquisition in the early 1800s, Judaism was gradually de-marginalised throughout the next two centuries, although it remains small today. The first Islam congregation was established in Galla in 1962 by Karamish immigrants, although it has remained marginal since.
In 2010, approximately 28% of Gallans belonged to the Church of Galla, this number having decreased by about two percentage points per year for the previous two decades. Less than 1% of the Church's members regularly services. The reason for the decline is generally attributed to be partly because of the growth of education and scientific understanding in schooling, and partly due to the change in Church membership requirements, which requires members of the Church to be Christened. Approximately 1.2 million Gallans consider themselves Catholic, with about 65% of these belonging Severeaux Church of Morieux.
According to the Gallobarometer, about 12% of Gallans responded they "believe there is a God or gods", 46% responded they "do not believe in any life force, spirit, God, or gods", and 32% answered they "believe there is a spirit or life force".
Karlskrona University sociology professor Lars Wahlberg states that Gallans are "reluctant to use the term 'atheist'", typically due to the perceived connotations of the term which proliferate in popular culture. Wahlberg states that "an aggressive policy of secularization: effected by the ban of public display of religious artefacts, public advertisement and proseltilyzation, and the lack of presence that religion has in Gallan personal and private lives combined to break community chains of religious tradition."
Healthcare in Galla is the responsibility of the national government, which regulates and pays the health insurance system from taxes. Regulation of the hospitals and emergency medical services fall under the umbrella of provincial government, who generally oversee construction and planning of these health organizations. The system consists of two "tiers" of healthcare: public and private. Individuals cannot be on the public plan if they have a private health insurance policy, and approximately 84% of the population is part of the public plan, while 16% have private insurance.
In 2012, the Gallan government spent about 10.6% (THR 220 bn) of its GDP, or about THR 3,400 per capita, on healthcare. According to the Maredoratic Health Organization, this level of spending compares with the rest of Alisna, and the regional average overall.
The universal healthcare system ensures that the patients usually are reimbursed approximately 75% of payments from funds provided for by the compulsory health insurance. This generally results in relatively low copayments for most treatment. For terminal illnesses, such as cancer, physicians are legally allowed to offer euthanasia services to patients, with the latter's consent. In 2011, there were 3.02 physicians per capita, slightly below the continental average, but comparable to the rest of the region. As of 2014, approximately 283,000 individuals in Galla were living with HIV/AIDS.
The Maredoratic International Pharmaceuticals Agency (MIPA), responsible for setting standards of pharmaceutical production, publishing pharmacopeias, and general oversight of national regulation bodies, is headquartered in Genevad, Galla.
Main Article: Education in Galla
Education in Galla is de jure a matter for the national government, but provincial governments have significant autonomy in matters such as establishment and budget of/for schools, effectively devolving the matter. Provinces generally set wages for teachers, the organization of the school system, and funding, among other things. Post-secondary education, school vouchers, and grants are the domain of the national government. Curriculum is set according to national standards. Other areas where the state has authority include standards for university degrees, typically specified by credit hours rather than curricula, and nationally owned schools such as the Karlskrona Military Academy.
Schooling is compulsory until 18 for all students, and students will attend a secondary education school for vocational schooling or university entrance exams. Education for primary and secondary school is mostly paid through taxes and families may apply for school vouchers. Meals are provided to students free of charge in all schools. Private schools are required to be funded equal to public schools by municipalities, based on student population.
Unusually for Alisna, the majority of Gallan university-preparatory secondary schools (12-18) are boarding schools, often with co-ed boarding and student bodies, and these schools form a culturally unique part of most middle- and upper-class Gallans' childhoods. Although not entirely dissimilar to Questerian sixth-form schools, Gallan boarding schools tend to be longer in duration, and divided into multiple "tracks" similar to Moriviane lycée (sixth form) schools. Typically, boarding pupils will attend a preparatory school for four to six years, before graduating and attending a university to continue studies in whichever academic track they decided upon, spending relatively little time at home during this period.
As a reflection of academic performance, boarding schools form an intimate part of approximately half of the population's lives, and several sociological studies from Karlskrona University have suggested that the communitarian, totalizing, and communal nature of the schools has affected Gallan culture at large, leading to a more interconnected and "family-like" view of society; although this has been challenged by academics who argue that the religious background of Gallan culture created such an environment in the first place. The studies noted the similarities between boarding school dormitory layouts and apartments/flats, and communal bathing areas in schools and unisex public restrooms typical of Gallan society-at-large, although there was no direct evidence to link either cases.
Although often derided as outdated, or even ineffectual, the Gallan boarding school system has been subject to study since the 1960s, and a long-term study by Karlskrona University researchers found that, compared to students raised in comprehensive or vocational schooling environments, the boarding pupil achieved higher rates of academic, social, and economic success, and even personal life satisfaction. Pupils raised in the boarding environment suggested that the communal aspect and cultural values asserted by the system gave them experience and social recognition that their peers outside such an environment lacked.
Downsides to the system, noted by preparatory graduates, included a "lack of connection" with close family members and "difficulty" forming lasting relationships, which the authors speculated a result of lack of close parent-child bonds, but ceded that this was both outside their fields and beyond the scope of the study. Despite these apparent problems, most of the preparatory graduates interviewed stated they were happy with their lives, and several had married and had children, with the authors noting that these downsides appeared to be hardly insurmountable, further noting that the divorce rate between preparatory graduates and other students was lower by a statistically significant margin.
The study concluded that as more and more Gallan citizens enter university, it may be necessary to establish a nation-wide system of preparatory schools to provide them with cultural backing and education needed to succeed in post-secondary endeavours.
According to Maredoratic Organization for Culture, Education, and Science (MOCES), in 2011 approximately 48% of Gallans had tertiary degrees. Galla, as with some other Alisnan states, subsidises tuition of foreign or international students in Gallan universities and Gallan students studying abroad.
Main Article: Gallan nationality law
Immigration to Galla has historically been low, and typically from Alisnan countries such as Questers or Borgosesia. Since the 1970s there has been increased immigration from Wilassia and Alqosia, but this increased substantially in the following decade, notably from Maalukhir and South Alqosia. Nationality law favours the jus sanguinis (right of blood) doctrine, meaning that citizenship is granted through ancestry. A child born to at least one Gallan parent is automatically granted Gallan citizenship, and simply being born in Galla does not afford one the right of citizenship. Immigrants therefore must acquire citizenship principally through naturalization.
Since the 19th century and the first waves of immigration to the country, Galla has pursued a policy of cultural assimilation, deliberately avoiding the creation of ethnic enclaves and communities. Immigrant and refugee communities arriving in Galla tended to be dispersed among residential areas and counties, and capital incentives to avoid relocation. Despite its efforts, large immigrant communities and enclaves have established themselves in Gallan cities such as Hammarsborg and Karlskrona.
In 2008, a study by the Karlskrona University's sociological department showed that immigrant populations tend to be divided on income and employment based on ethnicity and country of origin. The lowest performing groups tended to be from Maalukhir or Karaman, earning approximately 22-28% less per annum than native workers; the highest performing groups were Dansk, Varnian or Sondsteadish all of whom had income equal to or better than natives. The largest single factors in determining immigrant outcomes was their access to native social capital, their education level (specifically, primary and secondary education), and their grasp of Gallan language.
The study proffered the hypothesis that the mutual intelligibility shared by the Sondsteadish, Varnian, and Dansk languages with Gallan allowed these groups to readily acquire fluency, affording them significant advantages over less fluent immigrants such as Questerians. It further hypothesized that the relative lack of disparity in quality of life and education standards between Sondstead, Varnia, and Galla allowed these immigrants to stand on even ground, intellectually, with natives. The fact that Questerian-educated Dansk speakers earned the least of all of these groups, compared to native Gallans, lent support to this hypothesis.
Enclaves, such as the Questerian community in Hammarsborg, tend to reinforce social norms of the place of origin, although the most detriments such as lack of assimilation both culturally and linguistically, and "voluntary segregation" of the enclave ultimately places a glass ceiling on the economic and social development of the enclave's members, especially for those who are most heavily integrated, notably children born to foreign parents. The study found that individuals residing within the Questerian enclave tended to earn 10-15% less than equivalent native workers, worked longer hours, and enjoyed fewer benefits.
As of 2012, approximately 8.7% of the Gallan population was of foreign birth, with the largest community of immigrants originating from Varnia.
Main Article: Gallan Cuisine
Traditional Gallan cuisine is influenced by both Nordic and Southern Alisnan cuisine, using ingredients not available in Northern Alisna such as quail or rice. It has been noted as being one of the more eclectic cuisines in Maredoratica, sharing common dishes with Sondstead, Varnia, Berry, and Karaman. Gallans have been stereotyped as being open to novel cuisine, or more negatively, as goats who eat anything. Ingredients used in typical dishes are tuna, tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, mussels, and rice. A notable diversion from typical Nordic cuisine is a large focus on raw fish, not dissimilar to gravlax/graflaks, but using tuna, herring, and river eel instead of salmon, often served in thin slices with rice.
Common Gallan dishes include smorgas, an open sandwich topped with soft cheeses or vegetables, raw or cooked fish or meat, eggs, etc; julskinka, a cured ham cooked with a citrus glaze traditionally made from oranges and often served at Christmas; smorgastarta, a large, layered sandwich-cake served cold and often incorporating savoury ingredients; kaldomar, cabbage rolls stuffed with minced pork; and lammpita, a wrap of roast lamb and cucumbers similar to a kebab.
Spirits are an important part of the cuisine, and Galla produces a wide selection of liquors and liqueurs, including whiskys and brandies. Due to its climate, Galla has a large quantity of local and regional wineries, in stark contrast to the other, more northern Nordic countries, and wine is commonly consumed during supper. Brandy occupies a similar cultural position as akvavit in Varnia or Sondstead.
Gallans, in common with other Nordic countries, also consume large quantities of coffee, typically during breakfast and luncheon where strong, black coffee is preferred.