History of Pollona
Prehistory to Middle Ages
Holy Moravian Empire
Wars of Religion
Imperial Golden Age
Pollona and the Republican Era
In the 1910s clamors for social, economic, and constitutional reforms reached a climax after several years of public disputes within the Pollonan nobility. Incompetent administration in local principalities, the growth of the urban middle and working classes, and the effects of industrialization all affected the Empire's political climate. In the 1916 General Election, a Liberal - Social Democratic coalition was brought to power, headed by Martin Schrader and several highly popular Liberal politicians. However, the nobility frustrated the government's attempts at reform, most dramatically rejecting, for the first time in Imperial History, a government budget in 1918. This caused another general election, which the Coalition won again. Continued frustration or defeat of government proposals lead calls for a General Strike in 1919. The half-a-year strike crippled the already fragile economy, leading to greater hostility and protests and across Pollona. The ousting of the Duke of Silestria, lead by an armed mob in February 1920, set off a wave of revolutionary fervor in more principalities. With his government paralyzed and growing violence in the streets, Emperor Krištof II abdicated on April 2nd 1920; the same day the newly formed National Assembly declared the end of the Moravian Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Pollona.
The period between April 1920 and November 1922 (the ratific is referred to as Zmatek (Czech: "the Chaos"), a general sense of disorder and anarchy pervaded Pollona as the new government sought legitimacy and fought to maintain order. Headed by the National Assembly and President Frederic Bevalc, the government abolished all hereditary rights and privileges, re-organized the federal state, codified a new legal code, and established a new national army. Despite these achievements, uprisings initiated by both the nobility and trade unions, a continually weak economy, and a purged civil service severely damaged the central government (which had 12 different Prime Ministers in 2 years) during the Zmatek. On November 22nd 1922, the voters of Pollona approved a new, republican constitution, essentially ending the Velvet Revolution.
For the next decade the country underwent a radical ideological and cultural shift: transforming from of the most conservative societies in Alisna, to one of the most cosmopolitan on the continent. This was, somewhat ironically, presided over by Conservative Prime Minister Ruzicka, himself a former monarchist. His gradual economic and political reforms elevated the country's new middle class, consumerist society. A flourishing cultural movement, inspired by the revolution, cropped up in literature, the fine arts, philosophy, and science. This outcrop of optimism was shattered by the "červená jaro" (Red Spring), an uprising by Pollona's ethnic German minority in 1934, which lasted for over 3 years. A series of tensions between the German community and the government had been building since the revolution, and a few terrorist incidents heightened the hostilities. The massacre of Czech civilians and the gruesome counterinsurgency (over 100,000 people dead) in the Red Spring bitterly divided the country. The government to finally clamp down on the German minority, in a series of now infamous segregationist policies known collectively as Odveta.
The period after the implementation of the Odveta policies was marked by increasing economic management by the federal government, especially under Prime Minister Zestal. The government created numerous new state infrastructure and housing enterprises, and nationalized sectors like the telecom, transportation, and utility industries. The government furthermore provided money to regional institutions to provide welfare, education, and healthcare services to the country's working poor. International sanctions on the Pollonan economy (resulting from Odveta) initially dampened growth leading into the 1940s, but by the latter half of the decade the country saw a huge increase in living standards and large boosts in economic growth. In foreign affairs Pollona requested membership in the Maredoratic League in 1947, but drawn out negotiations on both sides left the country's ascension on hold. Pollona has technically been in the application stage of the ML for over 60 years.
The Shroma Cases (or the Shromáždění Affair) in the 1950s lead the Supreme Court of Pollona to rule that the National Assembly and all large scale regional assemblies violated the Basic Law's rules for adequate representation. This arose from the federal government overruling local authorities in public consultations, and in one case abolishing them. After the rulings, most powers devolved to municipal governments, while the Supreme Court and Executive Council agreed to subsume the federal responsibilities left open by the Shroma Cases. This marks the beginning of Pollona's present political system.
Isolation and Nationalism (1950s to 1980s)
In the 1960s and 70s, enormous political and financial effort went into the modernization of national infrastructure and the initiation of subsidies and loans to starter enterprises. Industrial unrest bottomed out during the period as governments fought for a 'permanent' reconciliation between business and the labor movement. The national government funded federal and regional economic programs for Pollona's ethnic German population and communities, named Hospodářské Jednoty (economic unity). These development projects were characterized as a reward for good behavior, as most dissidents had been pacified or eliminated by the 1950s. Unfortunately, the Jednoty reforms were unable to jump start international dialogue with Pollona, and after a few years they were scrapped due to mounting fiscal deficits.
Runaway public spending, coupled with inefficient government enterprises and enormous public debt, lead to a partial default in 1969. The crisis was coupled with an emerging period of stagflation and political paralysis, crippling public and economic confidence. Most blamed foreign countries and governments for trying to intentionally destroy the republic economically as well as diplomatically. The Republic's long running isolationism gave way to increasingly aggressive governments, culminating in the inauguration of Nationalist Martin Kapralek as Lt. Governor in 1972. His 4 years in office are associated with staggering economic incompetence, extra-judicial sentencing, a revised crackdown on German Pollonans and a failed reconquest of the Vladzemi. Opinion on all sides swung heavily against Kapralek's regime, and in 1976 he was impeached and removed from office, the first and only instance in the Republic's history. The public remained disillusioned for several years, and permanently refrained from the hard nationalism of the 70s.
Reforms of the 1980s to Present
Starting in 1980 Lt. Governor Touka oversaw a fast array of free-market policies for his 7 year term: privatization, deregulation, free trade, and tax reform. As a consequence the economy was much healthier by the time he left office, and many attribute his reforms to the country's current economic prosperity. He is notable for his widely successful policy of devolution, and the introduction of national referenda for "important events". Touka's other priorities caused a deep split in the Liberal-Unionists in the later half of his term. He was in favor, for example, of relaxing Odveta, which set off a political firestorm in 1985. Coupled with regional and municipal incompetence and large divisions on the left, the center-right Civic-Democrats would control most governmental positions for the next two decades.
The dawn of the new millennium saw the rise of Pollona's engagement in international affairs, particularly rekindling its relationships with Prekonate and Rochehaut. After the 2001 Revolution in Questers, the administration of Šimon Waldstein quietly supported the GSR and secured a basing agreement. Despite this action, Pollonan officials avoided explicitly aligning with any one side, in order to balance competing interests. Some minor judicial reorganization proposals and governmental tweaks were made on the federal level. A series of high profile corruption cases (involving the misuse of government contracts), coupled with a sharp recession in 2012, scuttled the popularity of the Civic-Democrats. Voters selected the young and reform minded Josef Laszlo to accede to the Lt. Governorship in 2013; he has since set out on a platform of transparency and competence in governmental affairs.