Public international law
Public international law refers to the body of law concerned with the conduct and interaction of sovereign international entities. It consists of the laws of the Maredoratic League, bi- and multilateral agreements between states, international custom, and the concept of accepted norms (jus cogens). Traditionally concerned with justifications for war and title claims, public international law has shifted focus in the 21st century toward issues of trade, and secondarily, toward the environment and human rights.
International actors are not bound to any particular form of arbitration, as there is no international judicial system in Maredoratica. In practice, disputes are worked out using a third-party mediator known as an arbitrator.
Conflict of laws
Maredoratic League law
Member-states of the Maredoratic League are bound by laws passed by the ML League Council, under the principle of legal preemption. In the case of a conflict between a national and Maredoratic League law, the latter prevails. Maredoratic League law governs the conduct of member-states between themselves, of member-states with non-member-states, and of the Maredoratic League with non-member-states.
As most international disputes involve at least one member of the Maredoratic League, ML law is a principal source of public international law. Many non-members, especially Prekonate, have adopted elements of ML law in their own legal codes.
Codified laws govern trade conducted within the Maredoratic League. These laws harmonize and facilitate trade between members. They preempt any conflicting laws in effect in the various member-states.
Trade between the Maredoratic League members and non-members is subject to the Global Trade Facilitation Protocol (GTFP). The GTFP requires non-members to adhere to certain aspects of Maredoratic League law when trading with a member-state. Although the GTFP supersedes all other bilateral agreements, it does not forbid countries from passing trade regulations in areas that are not covered by the GTFP.
Trade between non-members of the Maredoratic League are governed by bilateral trade agreements, for instance the X. These agreements typically divide jurisdiction over disputes between the courts of each country, or grant jurisdiction to a neutral third party.
When a dispute cannot be settled or adjudicated by a national court, it may be submitted for arbitration by a third party. A group of X countries are frequently called on to decide disputes in favor of one party or another, because of their small size and perceived political neutrality. The body of law around this group is called arbitration law; it relies on accepted norms and legal precedent, namely the precedent set by the group on previous arbitration.
This process has become increasingly common in the 21st century, as countries become more globalized and seek legal frameworks for doing business with one another.