|Southern Alqosian Federation
Persekutuan Alkosya Selatan
|Anthem: Perajurit Tanah Air|
|Official languages||Malay, French|
|Government||Parliamentary republic with executive president|
|•||President of the Federation||Muzakir bin Saqabat|
|•||Chair of the Senate|
|•||Formation of the Federation||11th June 1914|
|•||Dawn Raid||3rd January 1968|
|•||1st February 1969||Constitution of the Second Federation|
58,726 sq mi
|•||2017 estimate||24.5 million|
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|Currency||South Alqosian Dollar (SQD)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Southern Alqosian Federation (Malay: Persekutuan Alkosya Selatan), commonly known as South Alqosia, is a multi-racial and multi-cultural federal state in the south of Alqosia. It has a total landmass of 152,100 square kilometres and shares a northern land border with Maachwabia. Its capital city is Kuala Bakau, although Kuala Penchala is larger. The Federation has a population of 24.5 million, although only around 80% of those are citizens. South Alqosia receives sigificant numbers of economic economic migrants and refugees from the rest of Alqosia. Located between the equator and the tropic of capricorn, South Alqosia has a tropical climate and is considered a mega-diverse country.
Human habitation in South Alqosia dates back tens of thousands of years, and until the late 18th century was ruled by a collection of Sultans. In 1913 foreign merchants with private armies launched coup d'etats against these Sultans and ruled the country as a private company before the commencement of statehood and an intellectual, political, and economic revolution in the 1960s, in which the Second Constitution was signed. The Government is modeled around a parliamentary system with a strong executive President, responsible to a unicameral Senate. Sources of law in the Federation are a form of customary law, without a penal code, and statutes from the federal Senate. The nine states of South Alqosia have wide powers to enact domestic policy, but foreign policy and economic policy is almost entirely managed by the federal government. South Alqosia has been ruled exclusively by the Peoples Radical Democratic Party since 1979, although the constitution mandates coalition government. The constitution describes South Alqosia as a secular state without a state religion, but enshrines Malay culture as the national culture.
Since the 1960s, South Alqosia has experienced rapid economic growth, with GDP growth around 9.5% for more than 40 years. The economic system, sometimes labeled Penchala capitalism, is modeled around very powerful conglomerates and a commitment to free markets. South Alqosia is the wealthiest per-capita country in Alqosia and the most developed by HDI. The South Alqosian government provides a basic income to its citizens, which can be used to purchase school vouchers or subsidised childcare. Healthcare is provided by mandatory medical savings accounts, government-supported public hospitals and price controls. South Alqosia has made major advances in education and healthcare since 1980, with the system rated as the most efficient or second-most efficient in Alqosia. Both education and healthcare contribute to the country's high HDI of 0.865. Child mortality and illiteracy rates are negligible.
The Federation is highly heterogenous. Some 55% of the population are Malay, and around 16% and 9% are from Alisna and south Wilassia respectively: both have their origins in immigrant communities which arrived in the 19th and early to mid 20th centuries. South Alqosian law firmly prohibits racial discrimination and public comments which could be racially divisive. Since 1990, the foreign-born population of South Alqosia has increased from around 1% to a projected 20% in 2019, a mix of refugees, economic migrants, and undocumented workers. This rapid increase in the foreign population has been a source of tension, with race riots in 1999 and 2016. Almost 1 million migrnats are thought to be undocumented, providing a serious challenge to the South Alqosian government.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Science
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
In May 1914, the Great Maredoratic War broke out. On June 1st all the merchant trading houses used their private forces to overthrow the seven Sultans of South Alqosia. Fighting lasted less than a week, and by 11th of June the merchants had defeated the Sultanates. They instituted their own Federation, dividing up the land previously held up by the Sultanates into four states, with state governments led by the dominant trading house in that state, and five sultanates under the nominal control of the Sultans. Between 1914 and 1968 South Alqosia was the only country in the world ruled by private corporations, who dominated the Federal government. These corporations collected taxes and operated as governments, but they were private limited companies.
South Alqosia had little interaction with the rest of the world in the beginning of the 20th century. Without a central bank, its Dollar was tied to the Ecu at a weak rate of exchange, and South Alqosia exported mostly cash crops to the rest of the world. There were no airports or international rail lines and travel to South Alqosia required direct travel by ship. Isolated at the southern most point of the world, development slowed; in 1959 South Alqosia had a per capita income 1/10th that of Morieux and 1/5th that of Guurdalai. In December 1967, the trading houses of South Alqosia created the Kuala Bakau Interchange, South Alqosia's stock market, in order to raise funds, but on 1st January 1968, after acquiring a substantial loan in secret from the Morivaine Central Bank, the Philby Trading Company launched a dawn raid on the remaining trading houses. By the 3rd of January the Philby Company had a majority share in each of the four houses. The New Year Dawn Raid marks the beginning of formal government.
On 1st February 1969, a new constitution was approved by referendum, which has stayed in force ever since. In the 1980s, under President Michel Pym, South Alqosia saw rapid economic growth, developing a system known as Penchala capitalism, named after the river which flows through Kuala Penchala. Successive governments were able to create a viable economic model, suppress corruption, and hold fair elections. During this period, the Federation became the wealthiest and least corruption state in Alqosia. Pym was succeeded by William Adam in 1997, the first Malay President. Since Adam, all Presidents have been Malays.
ContemporaryMaredoratic League member state, lost a historic court case in which it was ruled that the Council of the Maredoratic League could force Alqosia to take refugees from Alqosian countries. Both refugees and ordinary migrants began to flow into the country; the number of foreign born residents increased five-fold from 1990 to 1999 and twenty five-fold from 1990 to 2018. The presence of migrants, an increase in unemployment, and a deterioration in race relations stretched South Alqosia's domestic resources for dealing with extremists, and an extreme right wing party, the Malay Peoples Party, began agitating during the 1990s. These factors culminated in a 1999 race riot in which 85 people were killed, and a more severe 2016 race riot in which more than 330 people were killed and 56 rioters sentenced to death.
The Malay Peoples Party, formed from members of the banned National Progressive Party, was proscribed in 1999 for its active role in the race riots; its leading members remain in jail. The National Progressive Party was re-legalised in 2013 after a new governing party council changed its official positions. Nonetheless, since 1969, politics has been dominated by the Radical Party and Liberal Party. In 2015 the National Progressive Party accused the Electoral Commission of gerrymandering. A two year Supreme Court case followed, and the Electoral Commission redrew the constituency boundaries in 2018.
South Alqosia is a parliamentary republic with an executive president. The President is responsible to the unicameral Senate, and comes from the largest party in the Senate. Three main parties dominate the Senate; the radical centrist Peoples Radical Democratic Party (PRDR), the liberal Liberal Action Party (PTL), and the conservative National Progressive Party (PPN). The PPN was banned between 1991-2013 for its Islamist stance, but was legalised after being allowed to modify its official positions. Other parties, including the Communist Party of Alqosia and the Malay Peoples Party (PRM) are prohibited for their extremist views. Some smaller parties, including the Green Party (PH) and the Social Democratic Front (BDS) occasionally have enough votes to be part of the Government. Since 1968, all Presidents have been from the PRDR, with varying levels of influence from the PTL, which has provided every Deputy President since 1974.
South Alqosia is a constitutional federation of nine states, four of which are secular republics, and five of which are sultanates. The Constitution determines the relationships between the states and the federal government, but does not regulate the states themselves, which have broad powers to enact domestic policy.
Senators are elected by simple majority. Suffrage is extended to all males and females above the age of 25 who have completed national service (including foreigners) and who do not have a criminal record. The Constitution does not grant any political rights, but it does mandate free and fair elections. Citizens elect political parties when voting for the Presidency, and the party's choice for President can be impeached by the party and replaced by another party member.
South Alqosia is divided into nine different entities; five sultanates, two city-states, and two secular republics.
- Kuala Penchala
- Kuala Bakau
Foreign affairs and military
South Alqosia's military is known as the Bersenjata (literally "Weaponed"), and consists of three branches; the Land Forces, the South Alqosian Navy, and the South Alqosian Air Defence Force. South Alqosia practices national service, with some conscripts, both male and female, serving in the Bersenjata. The total strength is 177,000, with almost 275,000 reserves. Alqosian factories produce some small arms and small-arms ammunition but vehicles, weapons systems and munitions are usually bought from Alisnan countries. The Bersenjata has never been deployed in anger overseas, but South Alqosia does contribute peacekeepers to the Maredoratic League. South Alqosian troops were deployed to the city of Kuala Penchala during the 2016 race riots.
South Alqosia has a co-ordinated market economy, with a GDP PPP of $775 billion, the 18th-largest in the world. The economy is characterised by sustained growth, macro-economic stability, high tech industry and a highly-educated workforce. The per-capita GDP of $32,265 is the 8th-highest in the world and the highest in Alqosia. Alqosia's economy has been considered high-income since 2005. The economy is highly-integrated into the international financial system, with 14 of the world's 500 biggest companies are based in South Alqosia. The currency of South Alqosia is the South Alqosian Dollar, which is a free-floating currency.
South Alqosia's economic culture is marked by an extremely low tax regime, high and low regulations on the financial markets and product markets respectively, and commitment to free trade and the rule of law. Combined with the presence of large, integrated and government-supported companies known as rentetan, and a legal framework strongly encouraging investment, this culture has sometimes been referred to as Penchala capitalism. Very rapid growth in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in some observers describing the economy as a miracle on the Penchala.
Other than trade with the broader world, South Alqosia's economy is integrally linked to the rest of the continent. South Alqosia is the largest recipient of foreign direct investment in Alqosia, and a financial services hub for Alqosian economies. South Alqosia co-operates with Soufia to provide Islamic banking to Alqosia and Karaman: South Alqosian banks provide large amounts of foreign direct investment to the rest of Alqosia and South Alqosia has the largest foreign exchange reserves in Alqosia.
Alqosian companies are dominated by a system known as rentetan (literally sequence, series or logical order), which describes a system in which public limited companies (Bhd) share interlocking business relationships and share ownerships with one another and the state. The current companies considered rentetan are Horizon, Baru Otomatik, Penchala, ZOHAL, Kishiran, and Dasar Selatan. Although some groups do not participate in some sectors, common sectors include banking, heavy manufacturing, software, telecommunications, energy, minerals, and logistics. The state is able to control appointments of chief executives to these companies and set limits on dividends. In recent years, other public companies have entered the economy, especially trading companies, after rules regarding ease of doing business were significantly relaxed in the 21st-century.
Since the 1980s the Ministry of Transport has invested heavily in Alqosia's transport network, although many transport firms have been part-privatised, such as Alqosian Rail, the entire bus service for Kota Penchala, and many South Alqosian ports. South Alqosia has two major airports handling large passenger and cargo freight; Kuala Bakau International Airport, and Penchala International Airport, with four and two terminals respectively. The fully nationalised South Alqosian Airways flies from Kuala Bakau, and the low-cost carriers AlqosiaJet and Tiger Air fly from, and are headquartered in, Kota Penchala.
All major settlements in South Alqosia are linked by light rail, and the country has one major freeway linking the two large cities of Kuala Bakau and Kota Penchala, as well as the major ports. However, the Federal government has resisted demands to build a comprehensive network of either (or both) freeways or high-speed rail linking all of South Alqosia, citing high costs. The state grants subsidies through Green South Alqosia (Alkosya Selatan Hijau Berhad, ASH Bhd), a government enterprise which invests in green public transportation. Alqosia has a modern postal system which is wholly state-owned (Post Alqosia), after the state re-bought the shares it had sold in the 1990s.
As of 2014, the population of South Alqosia is 24,520,910. Of this, nearly 56% are ethnic Malays. A further 16% are descendents of migrants from countries in Wilassia, Alisna and Septimania, and around 9% are descendents of migrants from Ruccola and Taihei Tengoku. The remaining 18% are recent immigrants from other Alqosian countries, and the last 1% are other migrants. In terms of language, any document relating to law, medicine, banking or any kind of contract can by law be requested in Malay, English, Morivaine, Dutch and German, Sesian, Varnian, Gallan, Pollonan and Prekovi Czech, Yamato and Sinitalian.
Between 1993 and 2003, South Alqosia absorbed nearly 1 million refugees from Alqosia, with a massive migrant boom from the rest of the continent in the 21st-century from 1990 onwards. Combined with economic migrants and other Alqosian refugees, South Alqosia also accepted 50,000 Mongolic families from Prekonate between 2005 and 2015, and upwards of 250,000 refugees from Karaman. The foreign born population of South Alqosia increased from 1% in 1989 to 8.5% in 1999 and is projected to be 21.5% in 2019. It is estimated that South Alqosia is home to up to 1 million undocumented migrants.
South Alqosia has mandatory education from 4-16. A system of national curriculum schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan: National School) are provided by the government but require fees to be paid. The Ministry of Education & Technology and Research (METRE) co-operates with the Ministry of Social Affairs to ensure that the universal basic income provided by the state to children can fund school fees, purchases of uniforms, and textbooks. There are a number of private schools in South Alqosia, but since the 1970s, religious education has been tightly licensed by METRE. The majority of South Alqosian students continue to study the International Baccaleurette between 16-18. South Alqosia has 14 degree-issuing universities and 38 colleges which issue other qualifications. Except for the University of Kuala Bakau, all universities are privately owned and privately financed. The state works with private industry, especially industries with state ownership, to offer scholarships and grants.
South Alqosia scores highly on international education metrics. Analysts have pointed to a culture of education investment (which are always tax deductible), high discipline in schools, a well-educated base of teachers, and co-operation between students, teachers, parents and employers, to explain Alqosia's successful education system. By law, all education in Alqosia must be French-medium, with compulsory classes in Malay in all schools and universities, state or private. 95% of South Alqosia is literate; of which 85% are literate in French. South Alqosia is led largely by graduates of its Bachelor of Public Leadership program, in both government and industry.
Healthcare in South Alqosia is a universal system, which places responsibility for healthcare funding on citizens and the national sovereign wealth fund. All citizens must make payments into a medical savings account, which is managed by the sovereign wealth fund, and from which funds can be withdrawn to pay for medical emergencies. Medical savings accounts can be overdrawn: the Alqosian state writes off medical debt after five years. In addition to the medical savings account, the state uses price controls to keep the cost of medicines and procedures down.
All healthcare is overseen by the Federal Public Health Agency (Badan Kesihatan Awam Persekutuan, BKAP), a non-ministerial government agency. South Alqosia does not have a health minister, and its public health is managed entirely by the civil service. The chief executive of the BKAP is the Executive Secretary of Public Health, who is appointed directly by the President. The agency's budget as of FY2017 is $25 billion.