Supreme Court of Pollona
|Supreme Court of Pollona|
|Nejvyšší soud Ploňá Republiky|
|Established||November 18, 1922|
Nomination by lower courts |
(excludes Chief Justice)
|Authorized by||The Basic Law|
|Judge term length||Mandatory retirement at age 80|
|Number of positions||15 ( 2 'Colleges' )|
|Chief Justice of Pollona|
|Since||7 August 2006|
|Lead position ends||7 August 2021|
The Supreme Court of Pollona (Czech: Nejvyšší soud Ploňá Republiky or NsP), is the highest federal court in Pollona, the final court of appeals in the Pollonan legal system. The court grants hearings for roughly 120 litigants each year, accepting appeals on decisions rendered by federal and state courts. The Supreme Court's judgments are binding upon all lower courts in Pollona. In Pollonan law, the Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter of judicial review and the final interpreter of constitutional law.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court are nominated by fellow judges on federal appellate courts and from state supreme courts. The Chief Justice is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Federal Council to serve a 15 year term.
The function of the Supreme Court can be traced back to the Moravian Empire, with the creation of the High Court in 1686. Prior courts were simply extensions of the royal prerogative, without official statutory backing. The finer points of modern statutory interpretation, as well as the customs of Pollonan common law, can be traced back to the royal courts.
The creation of the Supreme Court was prescribed in Basic Law following its enactment on November 17th, 1922. The Judicial Enablement Act passed the following day promulgated the national government's court system, including the Supreme Court. The first Chief Justice of the Court, Filip Zahradnik, assumed office the same day. The court's first docket was an ad hoc session held in July of 1923. As the Basic Law provided for judicial nomination of associate justices, a full session of the court did not sit until 1925.
The increase in the importance of the court over the 20th century was reflected in a growth of its membership. The court was first established with six sitting judges. As Parliament increased the number of regional appellate courts, a new position was created to allow each federal circuit to elect its own associate justice. Following legislation in 1957, state Supreme Courts elected justices to the court as well.
In 1972, the court's scope for judicial review expanded after creating its two colleges of justices: for civil and criminal cases, doubling the number of litigants per term. This marked a dramatic increase in cases involving constitutional jurisprudence and civil liberties. Decisions limiting the powers of the federal government, and its governmental bodies increased with the wider application of immediate jurisdiction under Chief Justice Bláha.
Despite the nomination of Chief Justice Alita Dubnová in 1995, the court lagged behind other Pollonan institutions in gender balance. From 1922 till 2004, no more 20% of the justices (3 of 15) were female. However in 2013, the nomination of Tatiana Chekov in 2013 increased the number of women justices to 6, marking a watershed for the court.
According to legal scholars, the court has seen an increase in the number of dissenting and concurring opinions since the 1990s, creating a less centrist and more divided court than previous generations. Part of this has been attributed to the increasing complexity of federal law, others have attributed it to a growing number of civil rights cases or more advisory opinions on political questions. Recent Chief Justices, such as Milos Raster, have attempted to mitigate these splits by requiring greater consensus on petitions of Certiorari.